"urging to some course of conduct or action," 1580s, from French hortatoire and directly from Late Latin hortatorius "encouraging, cheering," from hortatus, past participle of hortari "exhort, encourage, urge, incite, instigate," intensive of horiri "urge, incite, encourage," from PIE root *gher- (2) "to like, want." Older in English is hortation (1530s), from Latin hortationem.
early 15c., "apply hot liquids," from Old French fomenter "apply hot compress (to a wound)" (13c.), from Late Latin fomentare, from Latin fomentum "warm application, poultice," contraction of *fovimentum, from fovere "to warm; cherish, encourage" (see fever). Extended sense of "stimulate, instigate" (1620s), on the notion of "encourage the growth of," as if by heat, probably was taken from French. Related: Fomented; fomenting.
late 14c., exhortacioun, "incitement by means of argument, appeal, or admonition; the argument or appeal made," from Old French exhortacion and directly from Latin exhortationem (nominative exhortatio) "an exhortation, encouragement," noun of action from past-participle stem of exhortari "to exhort, encourage," from ex- "thoroughly" (see ex-) + hortari "encourage, urge" (from PIE root *gher- (2) "to like, want"). From early 15c. as "speech for the purpose of exhortation."
Old English hwettan "to whet, sharpen," figuratively "incite, encourage," from Proto-Germanic *hwatjan (source also of Old Norse hvetja "to sharpen, encourage," Middle Low German, Middle Dutch wetten, Old High German wezzan, German wetzen "to sharpen," Gothic ga-hvatjan "to sharpen, incite"), from PIE root *kwed- "to sharpen" (source also of Sanskrit codati "incites," literally "sharpens;" Old English hwæt "brave, bold," Old Saxon hwat "sharp").
"ostentatiously superior and condescendingly favorable," by 1806, present-participle adjective from patronize. In 18c. generally in a more positive sense, "act as a patron to, support and encourage." Related: Patronizingly.
"of or pertaining to exhortation, tending incite by means of argument, appeal, or admonition," early 15c., exhortatori, from Late Latin exhortatorius, from Latin exhortari "to encourage, stimulate" (see exhort).
c. 1600, "provocative, exciting, encouraging," from Late Latin incentivus "inciting" (see incentive (n.)). In reference to a system of rewards meant to encourage harder work, first attested 1943 in jargon of the U.S. war economy.