Etymology
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egg (n.)

"the body formed in the females of all animals (with the exception of a few of the lowest type) in which by impregnation the development of the fetus takes place," mid-14c., egge, mostly in northern England dialect, from Old Norse egg, from Proto-Germanic *ajja(m) (source also of Old Saxon, Middle Dutch, Dutch, Old High German, German ei, Gothic ada), probably from PIE *owyo-/*oyyo- "egg" (source also of Old Church Slavonic aja, Russian jajco, Breton ui, Welsh wy, Greek ōon, Latin ovum); possibly derived from root *awi- "bird."

This Norse-derived northern word vied in Middle English with native cognates eye, eai, from Old English æg, until finally displacing the others after c. 1500. Caxton (15c.) writes of a merchant (probably a north-country man) in a public house on the Thames who asked for eggs:

And the goode wyf answerde, that she coude speke no frenshe. And the marchaunt was angry, for he also coude speke no frenshe, but wolde have hadde egges, and she understode hym not. 

She did, however, recognize another customer's request for "eyren." Used of persons from c. 1600. Bad egg in the figurative sense is from 1855; bad eggs aren't always obvious to outward view (there was an old proverb, "bad bird, bad egg"). To have egg on (one's) face "look foolish" is attested by 1948.

[Young & Rubincam] realize full well that a crew can sometimes make or break a show. It can do little things to ruin a program or else, by giving it its best, can really get that all-important rating. They are mindful of an emcee of a variety show who already has been tabbed "old egg in your face" because the crew has managed to get him in such awkward positions on the TV screen. [Billboard, March 5, 1949] 
We don't have egg on our face. We have omelet all over our suits. [NBC News anchor Tom Brokaw, some time past 3 a.m. ET on Nov. 8, 2000, after the U.S. television networks called a winner, then retracted the call, in the Bush-Gore presidential election]

 Eggs Benedict is attested by 1898; various Benedicts are cited as the eponym, and the dish itself is said to have originated in the Waldorf-Astoria or Delmonico's, both in New York. The figure of speech represented in to have (or put) all (one's) eggs in one basket "to venture all one has in one speculation or investment" is attested by 1660s. The conundrum of the chicken (or hen) and the egg is attested from 1875.

Bumble, bramble, which came first, sir,
Eggs or chickens? Who can tell?
I'll never believe that the first egg burst, sir,
Before its mother was out of her shell.
[Mary Mapes Dodge, "Rhymes and Jingles," N.Y., 1875]
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egg (v.)

"to incite, urge, encourage, instigate," c. 1200, from Old Norse eggja "to goad on, incite," from egg "edge" (see edge (n.)). The unrelated verb from egg (n.) is by 1808 in cookery, "to cover or mix with eggs;" the meaning "to pelt with (rotten) eggs" is from 1857. Related: Egged; egging.

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egg-timer (n.)

"sand-glass used for determining the time in boiling eggs," 1873, from egg (n.) + timer.

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egg-cup (n.)

"cup for use in eating soft-boiled eggs," 1773, from egg (n.) + cup (n.).

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egg-nog (n.)

also eggnog, "sweet, rich, and stimulating cold drink made of eggs, milk, sugar, and spirits," c. 1775, American English, from egg (n.) + nog "strong ale."

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egg-white (n.)

"the clear liquid contained within an egg," 1881, from egg (n.) + white (n.). Also known as albumen or glair.

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egg-beater (n.)

also eggbeater, 1828, "instrument having a piece to be twirled by the hand, for use in whipping eggs," from egg (n.) + beater. Slang sense of "helicopter" is by 1937 from notion of whirling rotation.

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egg roll (n.)

"fried spring roll," a Chinese-American food, by 1917, though the ingredients have changed, from egg (n.) + roll (n.). The reason for egg is unclear now, as they often contain no egg and cabbage is the primary ingredient, but in the old recipe the shell they were rolled in was made of fried eggs.

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eggplant (n.)

also egg-plant, plant cultivated for its large oblong or ovate fruit, which is highly esteemed as a vegetable, 1763, from egg (n.) + plant (n.). Originally of the white variety. Compare aubergine.

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eggshell (n.)

also egg-shell, "the shell or outside covering of an egg, especially the hard, brittle, calcareous covering of birds' eggs," early 15c., from egg (n.) + shell (n.). It displaced ay-schelle (Old English ægscill), from the native word for "egg." As a color term, from 1894. Emblematic of "thin and delicate" from 1835; the figure of treading on eggshells "to move cautiously" is attested by 1734.

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