Etymology
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Earth Day 

as an annual ecological awareness event on April 22, from 1970; the idea for it and the name date from 1969.

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Ajax 
name of two Greek heroes in the Trojan War (Great Ajax, son of Telamon, and Little Ajax, son of Oileus), Latin, from Greek Aias, perhaps originally the name of an earth-god, from aia "earth." The Elizabethans punned on the name as a jakes "a privy."
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Skylab (n.)
name of a U.S. space program, first attested 1970, launched 1973, fell to earth 1979. From sky (n.) + lab (n.).
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Van Allen 
name of radiation belts around the Earth (and certain other planets), 1959, from U.S. physicist James A. Van Allen (1914-2006), who reported them in 1958.
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Erechtheus 
legendary first king and founder of Athens, from Latin Erechtheus, from Greek Erekhtheos, literally "render, shaker" (of the earth), from erekhthein "to rend, break, shatter, shake." Hence Erechtheum, the name of a temple on the Athenian acropolis.
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Demeter 

in Greek religion, the Olympian goddess of agriculture and useful vegetation, protectress of the social order and of marriage, mother of Persephone, from Greek Dēmētēr; the second element generally given as māter (see mother (n.1)); the first element possibly from da, Doric form of Greek "earth" (see Gaia), but Liddell & Scott find this "improbable" and Beekes writes, "there is no indication that [da] means 'earth', although it has also been assumed in the name of Poseidon." The Latin masc. proper name Demetrius means "son of Demeter."

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Joachim 
masc. proper name; a Joachimite (1797) was a follower of Italian mystic Joachim of Floris (obit c. 1200) who preached the reign of the Holy Spirit on earth, with a new gospel, would begin in 1260.
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Sienna 
city in central Italy, probably from Senones, the name of a Gaulish people who settled there in ancient times. Related: Sienese. The brownish-ochre color (1760) is from Italian terra di Sienna "earth of Siena," where the coloring material first was produced.
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Copernicus 

Latinized form of name of Mikolaj Koppernigk (1473-1543), Prussian Polish physician and canon of the cathedral of Frauenburg who promulgated the theory that the Earth and the planets revolve about the sun. His great work was "De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium." Related: Copernican (1660s).

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Mediterranean 

"the sea between southern Europe and northern Africa," 1590s, earlier Mediterranie (c. 1400), from Late Latin Mediterraneum mare "Mediterranean Sea" (7c.), from Latin mediterraneus "midland, surrounded by land, in the midst of an expanse of land" (but in reference to the body of water between Europe and African the sense probably was "the sea in the middle of the earth"); from medius "middle" (from PIE root *medhyo- "middle") + terra "land, earth" (from PIE root *ters- "to dry").

The Old English name was Wendel-sæ, so called for the Vandals, Germanic tribe that settled on the southwest coast of it after the fall of Rome. The noun meaning "a person of Mediterranean race" is by 1888.

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