Etymology
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eagle (n.)

"very large diurnal raptorial bird of the genus Aquila," mid-14c., from Old French egle, from Old Provençal aigla, from Latin aquila "black eagle," fem. of aquilus "eagle," often explained as "the dark colored" (bird); see aquiline. The native term was erne.

Golf score sense is by 1908 (according to old golf sources, because it "soars higher" than a birdie). As the name of a U.S. $10 coin minted from 1792 to 1933, established in the 1786 resolution for a new monetary system (but at first only the desperately needed small copper coins were minted). The figurative eagle-eyed "sharp-sighted" (like an eagle) is attested from c. 1600.

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half-eagle (n.)
U.S. $5 gold coin minted from 1795 to 1929, authorized in the 1786 resolution for a new monetary system; see half + eagle in the coinage sense.
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eaglet (n.)

"a young eagle," 1570s, from French aiglette, diminutive of aigle (see eagle).

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Kleagle (n.)
title of an officer in the KKK, 1921, from Klan + eagle.
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spread-eagle (n.)
literally "splayed eagle," 1560s, a heraldic term, from past-participle adjective of spread (v.). Common on signs, flags, etc; the colloquial term was from split crow. The figure is on the seal of the United States (hence spreadeagleism "extravagant laudation of the U.S.," 1858). Meaning "person secured with arms and legs stretched out" (originally to be flogged) is attested from 1785.
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Arnold 
masc. proper name, from Old High German Arenwald, literally "having the strength of an eagle," from arn "eagle," from Proto-Germanic *aron- "eagle" (from PIE root *or- "large bird;" see erne) + wald "power" (from PIE root *wal- "to be strong").
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erne (n.)
"sea eagle," from Old English earn "eagle," from Proto-Germanic *aron-, *arnuz "eagle" (source also of Old High German arn, German Aar, Middle Dutch arent, Old Norse örn, Gothic ara "eagle"), from PIE root *or- "great bird" (source also of Greek ornis "bird," Old Church Slavonic orilu, Lithuanian erelis, Welsh eryr "eagle"). The Germanic word also survives in the first element of names such as Arnold and Arthur.
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simurgh (n.)
monstrous bird, rational and ancient, in Persian mythology, 1786, from Persian simurgh, from Pahlavi sin "eagle" + murgh "bird." Compare Avestan saeno merego "eagle," Sanskrit syenah "eagle," Armenian cin "kite." Probably identical with the roc (q.v.).
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aquiline (adj.)

"curved like an eagle's beak," 1640s, originally in English in reference to long, hooked noses, from Latin aquilinus "of or like an eagle," from aquila "eagle," a word of uncertain origin. The meaning "pertaining to an eagle" is from 1650s; that of "eagle-like" is by 1742. 

Latin aquila often is explained as "the dark bird;" compare aquilus "blackish, swarthy, of the color of darkness," but some suggest the color word is from the bird. De Vaan writes, "It is possible that 'eagle' was derived from aquilus 'dark' when this had received its colour meaning. It may not be the only dark bird, but it is certainly one of the biggest and most majestic of them." As for aquilus, "The Romans derived this colour from aqua 'water', which [Etymologicum Magnum] reject because they cannot imagine water being black. Still, this seems a more likely derivation to me than from aquila 'eagle' ...."

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Aquila 
northern constellation, late 14c., from Latin aquila "eagle" (see aquiline).
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