c. 1300, "a pulling, act of imparting notion by towing," in various senses; verbal noun from draw (v.). The meaning "act of forming or tracing by a pen, pencil, etc." is from late 15c,; that of "picture or representation produced by drawing" is from 1660s.
Drawing-board, "board on which paper is stretched for use in drawing," is from 1725; used in figurative expressions, with the sense of "beginning, starting point" is by 1941 (in the Peter Arno "Well, back to the old drawing board" cartoon in the New Yorker).
"room appropriated for the reception of company," 1640s, short for withdrawing room (16c.; see withdraw), into which ladies would retire after dinner. Earlier in the sense of "private room" as draw-chamber (mid-15c.); drawyng chaumber (early 15c.).
1640s, "fatigue," noun of action from exhaust (v.) in sense of "drawing off" of strength. The etymological sense "act of drawing out or draining off" is by 1660s in English.
late 15c., "shot, missiles;" later "a stroke in drawing, a short line" (1580s), from French trait "line, stroke, feature, tract," from Latin tractus "drawing, drawing out, dragging, pulling," later "line drawn, feature," from past participle stem of trahere "to pull, draw" (see tract (n.1)). Sense of "particular feature, distinguishing quality" in English is first recorded 1752.
late 14c., "the act of drawing lines," from Latin lineationem (nominative lineatio) "a drawing of a line, the making in a straight line," noun of action from past-participle stem of lineare in an unrecorded sense "trace lines" (see lineament). Meaning "a marking by lines" is from 1540s.
mid-15c., protraccioun, "drawing or writing of numbers," from late Old French protraction (15c.) and directly from Late Latin protractionem (nominative protractio) "a drawing out or lengthening," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin protrahere "to draw forward, draw out, bring forth;" figuratively "bring to light, reveal, expose," from pro "forward" (see pro-) + trahere "to draw" (see tract (n.1)). Meaning "act of drawing out or prolonging" is from 1530s.
1670s as a technical term in perspective drawing; more generally by 1706 as "the representation of anything drawn on a plane; a drawing, sketch, or diagram of any object," from French plan "ground plot of a building, map," literally "plane surface" (mid-16c.), from Latin planum "level or flat surface," noun use of adjective planus "level, flat" (from PIE root *pele- (2) "flat; to spread").
The notion is of "a drawing on a flat surface." A doublet of plain via a later, learned French form. The meaning "scheme of action, formulated scheme for the accomplishment of some object or attainment of an end" is by 1713.