Etymology
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dozen (n.)

c. 1300, doseine, "collection of twelve things or units," from Old French dozaine "a dozen, a number of twelve" in various usages, from doze (12c.) "twelve," from Latin duodecim "twelve," from duo "two" (from PIE root *dwo- "two") + decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten"). The Old French fem. suffix -aine is characteristically added to cardinals to form collectives in a precise sense ("exactly 12," not "about 12").

The Latin word's descendants are widespread: Spanish docena, Dutch dozijn, German dutzend, Danish dusin, Russian duizhina, etc. The dozens "invective contest" (1928) originated in slave culture, the custom is probably African, the word probably from bulldoze (q.v.) in its original sense of "a whipping, a thrashing."

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duodenary (adj.)

"relating to the number twelve, twelve-fold," 1766, from Latin duodenarius "containing twelve," from duodeni "twelve each," from duodecim "twelve" (see dozen).

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duodecimal (adj.)

"reckoning by twelves and powers of twelve," 1714, from Latin in duodecimo (folded) "in a twelfth" of a sheet, from ablative of duodecimus "twelfth" (from duodecim "twelve;" see dozen) + -al (1).

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dodeca- 

before vowels dodec-, word-forming element used in technical compounds of Greek origin, signifying "twelve," from Latinized form of Greek dōdeka "twelve" (short for duodeka), from duo "two" (from PIE root *dwo- "two") + deka "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten"). Compare dozen.

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duodenum (n.)

"first portion of the small intestine," late 14c., also duodene, from Medieval Latin duodenum digitorium "space of twelve digits," from Latin duodeni "twelve each" (from duodecim "twelve;" see dozen). Coined by Gerard of Cremona (d. 1187) in "Canon Avicennae," a loan-translation of Greek dodekadaktylon, literally "twelve fingers long." The intestine part was so called by Greek physician Herophilus (c. 353-280 B.C.E.) for its length, which is about equal to the breadth of twelve fingers. The classical plural is duodena.

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duodecimo (n.)

size of paper or page (more or less 6.5 to 7.5 inches high and 4.5 inches wide), 1650s, from Latin in duodecimo (folded) "in a twelfth" of a sheet, from ablative of duodecimus "twelfth," from duodecim "twelve" (see dozen). So called because made originally by folding a printer's sheet and cutting it in 12 leaves. Often abbreviated 12mo. Also "a book in which each page is the twelfth part of the printer's sheet." Related: Duodecimary.

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*dekm- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "ten."

It forms all or part of: cent; centenarian; centenary; centi-; centime; centurion; century; centennial; cinquecento; dean; deca-; decade; decagon; Decalogue; Decameron; decapod; decathlon; December; decennial; deci-; decile; decimal; decimate; decimation; decuple; decussate; denarius; denier (n.) "French coin;" dicker; dime; dinar; doyen; dozen; duodecimal; duodecimo; eighteen; fifteen; fourteen; hecatomb; hendeca-; hundred; icosahedron; nineteen; nonagenarian; octogenarian; Pentecost; percent; quattrocento; Septuagint; sexagenarian; seventeen; sixteen; ten; tenth; thirteen; thousand; tithe.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit dasa, Avestan dasa, Armenian tasn, Greek deka, Latin decem (source of Spanish diez, French dix), Old Church Slavonic deseti, Lithuanian dešimt, Old Irish deich, Breton dek, Welsh deg, Albanian djetu, Old English ten, Old High German zehan, Gothic taihun "ten."

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*dwo- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "two."

It forms all or part of: anadiplosis; balance; barouche; between; betwixt; bezel; bi-; binary; bis-; biscuit; combination; combine; deuce; deuterium; Deuteronomy; di- (1) "two, double, twice;" dia-; dichotomy; digraph; dimity; diode; diphthong; diploid; diploma; diplomacy; diplomat; diplomatic; diplodocus; double; doublet; doubloon; doubt; dozen; dual; dubious; duet; duo; duodecimal; duplex; duplicate; duplicity; dyad; epididymis; hendiadys; pinochle; praseodymium; redoubtable; twain; twelfth; twelve; twenty; twi-; twice; twig; twilight; twill; twin; twine; twist; 'twixt; two; twofold; zwieback.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit dvau, Avestan dva, Greek duo, Latin duo, Old Welsh dou, Lithuanian dvi, Old Church Slavonic duva, Old English twa, twegen, German zwei, Gothic twai "two;" first element in Hittite ta-ugash "two years old."

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gross (n.)
"a dozen dozen," early 15c., from Old French grosse douzaine "large dozen;" see gross (adj.). Earlier as the name of a measure of weight equal to one-eighth of a dram (early 15c.). Sense of "total profit" (opposed to net (adj.)) is from 1520s.
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garnish (n.)
late 14c., "set of tableware" (probably a dozen; usually pewter), from garnish (v.). Sense of "embellishments to food" is from 1670s.
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