The meaning "book for inventories and daily accounts" is from late 15c. in English (14c. in French); that of "personal diary" is c. 1600, also from a sense developed in French. Meaning "daily publication" is from 1728. Classical Latin used diurnus for "of the day, by day," and also as a noun, "account-book, day-book."
Initial -d- in Latin usually remains in French, but according to Brachet, when it is followed by an -iu-, the -i- becomes consonantized as a -j- "and eventually ejects the d." He also cites jusque from de-usque.
1580s, "an account of daily events, a journal kept by one person of his or her experiences and observations," from Latin diarium "daily allowance," later "a journal," neuter of diarius "daily," from dies "day" (from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god"); also see -ary.
Sense of "a book with blank leaves or dated pages meant for keeping a daily record of events" is from c. 1600. Related: Diarial; diarian.