Etymology
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dispute (v.)

c. 1300, "engage in argumentation or discussion," from Old French desputer (12c.) "dispute, fight over, contend for, discuss" and directly from Latin disputare "weigh, examine, discuss, argue, explain," from dis- "separately, apart" (see dis-) + putare "to count, consider," originally "to prune, make clean, clear up" (from PIE root *pau- (2) "to cut, strike, stamp").

The Latin word was used in Vulgate in sense of "to argue, contend with words." In English, transitive sense of "argue against, attempt to disprove, deny" is from 1510s. Related: Disputable; disputed; disputing.

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dispute (n.)

c. 1300, "argumentative contention," from dispute (v.). Rare before c. 1600 (disputacioun in that sense is from late 14c.). Meaning "contention, strife, quarrel" is from 1610s.

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undisputed (adj.)

1560s, "not argued with," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of dispute (v.). Meaning "not called into question" is attested from 1620s.

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indisputable (adj.)

1550s, from Late Latin indisputabilis, from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + disputabilis, from Latin disputare "to weigh, examine, discuss, argue, explain" (see dispute (v.)). Related: Indisputably.

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disputant (n.)

"one who argues in opposition to another," 1610s, from noun use of Latin disputantem (nominative disputans), present participle of disputare "weigh, examine, discuss, argue, explain" (see dispute (v.)).

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disputable (adj.)

"liable to be contested or called into question; controvertible," 1540s, from French disputable (16c.) or directly from Latin disputabilis, from disputare "weigh; examine; discuss, argue, explain" (see dispute (v.)). Related: Disputably.

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disputation (n.)

late 14c., disputacioun, "formal debate or discussion before an audience or official body regarding the truth of something," from Old French desputasion and directly from Latin disputationem (nominative disputatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of disputare "weigh, examine, discuss, argue, explain" (see dispute (v.)). Earlier was desputeison (c. 1300), from Old French desputaison.

Disputation, as game for teaching logic, was a principal part of the scholastic exercises, and perhaps may still be so in some countries. A master presided, and after a sufficient time decided in favor of one of the disputants, who was then obliged to give his adversary a great thwack with a wooden instrument. [Century Dictionary, 1895]
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*pau- (2)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut, strike, stamp."

It forms all or part of: account; amputate; amputation; anapest; berate; compute; count (v.); depute; deputy; dispute; impute; pave; pavement; pit (n.1) "hole, cavity;" putative; rate (v.1) "to scold;" reputation; repute.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin pavire "to beat, ram, tread down," putare "to prune;" Greek paiein "to strike;" Lithuanian pjauti "to cut," pjūklas "saw."

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strife (n.)

c. 1200, "quarrel, fight, discord," from Old French estrif "fight, battle, combat, conflict; torment, distress; dispute, quarrel," variant of estrit "quarrel, dispute, impetuosity," probably from Frankish *strid "strife, combat" or another Germanic source (compare Old High German strit "quarrel, dispute"), related to Old High German stritan "to fight;" see stride (v.).

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quarrel (v.)

late 14c., querelen, "to raise an objection, dispute; rebel;" 1520s as "to contend violently, dispute angrily, fall out," from quarrel (n.1) and in part from Old French quereler (Modern French quereller). Related: Quarrelled; quarrelling.

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