Etymology
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dispatch (v.)

1510s, "to send off, send to a destination," usually implying urgent importance or haste, from Spanish despachar "expedite, hasten" or cognate Italian dispacciare "to dispatch." For first element, see dis-.

The second element apparently has been confused or corrupted, and its exact source and meaning is uncertain. One proposal is that it is Vulgar Latin *pactare "to fasten, fix" or *pactiare. Another says it is Latin -pedicare "to entrap" (from Latin pedica "shackle;" see impeach), and the Spanish and Italian words seem to be related to (perhaps opposites of) Old Provençal empachar "impede." See OED for full discussion.

Meaning "get rid of promptly by killing" is attested from 1520s; that of "attend to, finish, bring to an end, accomplish" is from 1530s. Related: Dispatched; dispatching.

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dispatch (n.)

1540s, "dismissal after settlement of business," from dispatch (v.). Meaning "speed, haste" is from 1570s. Sense of "a written message sent speedily" is first attested 1580s; that of "a sending off or away" is from c. 1600.

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dispatcher (n.)

"one who dispatches," mid-16c., agent noun from dispatch (v.).

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despatch 
18c. variant of dispatch (q.v.), apparently the result of an error in the printing of Johnson's dictionary.
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depeche (n.)

"a dispatch," 1520s, from French dépêche (15c.), from dépêcher "to dispatch," from Old French despeechier, from des- (see des-) + stem of empeechier "to hinder" (see impeach). Not directly related to dispatch. Sometimes nativized as depeach.

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telegram (n.)

"telegraphic dispatch," according to Bartlett's 1859 edition a coinage of E. Peshine Smith of Rochester, N.Y., from tele-, as in telegraph + -gram, and introduced in the Albany "Evening Journal" of April 6, 1852. Damned in the cradle by purists who pointed out that the correct formation would be telegrapheme (which is close to the Modern Greek word).

May I suggest to such as are not contented with 'Telegraphic Dispatch' the rightly constructed word 'telegrapheme'? I do not want it, but ... I protest against such a barbarism as 'telegram.' [Richard Shilleto, Cambridge Greek scholar, in the London Times, Oct. 15, 1857]

Related: Telegrammic.

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invoice (n.)

"written account of the particulars and prices of merchandise shipped or sent," 1550s, apparently from a re-Latinized form of French envois, plural of envoi "dispatch (of goods)," literally "a sending," from envoyer "to send," from Vulgar Latin *inviare "send on one's way," from Latin in "on" (from PIE root *en "in") + via "road" (see via (adv.)). As a verb, 1690s, from the noun.

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psychopomp (n.)

"guide or conductor of spirits or souls to the other world," 1835, from Greek psykhopompos "spirit-guide," a term applied to Charon, Hermes Trismegistos, Apollo, etc.; from psykhē "the soul, mind, spirit" (see psyche) + pompos "guide, conductor, escort, messenger," from pempein "to send, dispatch, guide, accompany," which is of unknown origin. "The verb has no IE etymology, nor does it show characteristics of loanwords or Pre-Greek vocabulary" [Beekes].

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citation (n.)

c. 1300, "summons, written notice to appear," from Old French citation or directly from Latin citationem (nominative citatio) "a command," noun of action from past participle stem of citare "to summon, urge, call; put in sudden motion, call forward; rouse, excite" (see cite).

Meaning "passage cited, quotation" is from 1540s; meaning "act of citing or quoting a passage from a book, etc." is from 1650s; in law, especially "a reference to decided cases or statutes." From 1918 as "a mention in an official dispatch."

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pneumatic (adj.)

"moved or played by means of air; of or pertaining to air or gases," 1650s, from Latin pneumaticus "of the wind, belonging to the air," from Greek pneumatikos "of wind or air" (which is attested mainly as "of spirit, spiritual"), from pneuma (genitive pneumatos) "the wind," also "breath" (see pneuma). Earlier was pneumatical (c. 1600). The pneumatic-dispatch tube was so called by 1859 (in Paris, pneumatique).

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