Etymology
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disadvantage (n.)

late 14c., disavauntage, "loss, injury, prejudice to interest," from Old French desavantage (13c.), from des- "not, opposite of" (see dis-) + avantage "advantage, profit, superiority" (see advantage). Meaning "that which prevents success or renders it difficult" is from 1520s.

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disadvantage (v.)

"hinder, do something disadvantageous to," 1530s, from disadvantage (n.). Related: Disadvantaged; disadvantaging.

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disadvantageous (adj.)

"not adapted to promote interest, reputation, or other good," c. 1600; see disadvantage (n.) + -ous. Perhaps modeled on French désavantageux. Related: Disadvantageously; disadvantageousness.

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disadvantaged (adj.)

1610s, "hindered by loss, injury, or prejudice," past-participle adjective from disadvantage (v.). Of races or classes deprived of opportunities for advancement, from 1902, a word popularized by sociologists. As a noun, shorthand for disadvantaged persons, it is attested by 1939.

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hardship (n.)
c. 1200, "quality of being hard" (obsolete), from hard (adj.) + -ship. Meaning "disadvantage, suffering, privation" is c. 1400.
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inconveniency (n.)
early 15c., "calamity, injury, harmful consequence," also "danger" (now obsolete), from Late Latin inconvenientia (see inconvenience (n.)). Meaning "trouble, disadvantage, quality of being inconvenient" is from 1550s.
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drawback (n.)
"hindrance, disadvantage,"1720, from draw (v.) + back (adv.). The notion is of something that "holds back" success or activity.
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penalize (v.)

1868, in sports, "to disadvantage one competitor for a breach of the rules," from penal + -ize. The meaning "to make or declare (an action) legally punishable" is by 1879. Related: Penalized; penalizing; penalization.

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weakness (n.)
c. 1300, "quality of being weak," from weak + -ness. Meaning "a disadvantage, vulnerability" is from 1590s. That of "self-indulgent fondness" is from 1712; meaning "thing for which one has an indulgent fondness" is from 1822.
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incommodity (n.)
early 15c., from Old French incommodité (14c.), from Latin incommoditas "inconvenience, disadvantage; damage, injury," from incommodus "inconvenient, unsuitable, troublesome," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + commodus "suitable, convenient" (see commode).
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