Etymology
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sine die 
"indefinitely," Latin, literally "without (fixed) day," from sine "without" (see sans) + ablative singular of dies "day" (from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine").
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hard hat (n.)
also hardhat, hard-hat, late 14c., "helmet," from hard (adj.) + hat (n.). From 1935 as "derby hat;" meaning "safety helmet" is from 1953; used figuratively for "construction worker" from 1970.
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memento mori (n.)

"a reminder of death," 1590s, a decorative object, usually an ornament for the person, containing emblems of death or reminders of the fleetingness of life, common in 16c., a Latin phrase, literally "remember to die," that is, "remember that you must die." From second person singular imperative of meminisse "to remember, recollect, think of, bear in mind" (a reduplicated form, related to mens "mind," from PIE root *men- (1) "to think") + mori "to die" (from PIE root *mer- "to rub away, harm" (also "to die" and forming words referring to death and to beings subject to death).

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pass out (v.)

"lose consciousness," 1915, from pass (v.) + out. Probably a weakened sense from earlier meaning "to die" (1899). Meaning "to distribute" is attested from 1926. Related: Passed out.

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morituri te salutant 
Latin, literally "those about to die salute you," words addressed to emperor by gladiators upon entering the arena. Third person singular is moriturus te salutat, first person singular is moriturus te saluto.
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go west (v.)
19c. British idiom for "die, be killed" (popularized during World War I), "probably from thieves' slang, wherein to go west meant to go to Tyburn, hence to be hanged, though the phrase has indubitably been influenced by the setting of the sun in the west" [Partridge]. Compare go south.
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merry widow 

"amorous or designing widow," 1907, from the English title of Franz Lehar's operetta "Die Lustige Witwe" (1905). "The Lusty Widow" would have been more etymological (see lust (n.)), but would have given the wrong impression in English. Meaning "a type of wide-brimmed hat" (popularized in the play) is attested from 1908.

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dura mater (n.)

"tough outer membrane surrounding the brain and the spinal cord," c. 1400, from Medieval Latin dura mater cerebri, literally "hard mother of the brain," a loan-translation of Arabic umm al-dimagh as-safiqa, literally "thick mother of the brain." "In Arabic, the words 'father,' 'mother,' and 'son' are often used to denote relationships between things" [Klein].

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hay fever (n.)

also hay-fever, 1825, from hay + fever. Also called summer catarrh (1828); not much noted before the 1820s, when it was sometimes derided as a "fashion" in disease.

People are apt to sneeze, in hot weather for example; and people do not die of sneezing now-a-days, as they did in days that no one knows any thing about. We cannot give six draughts a-day, at one and nine pence each, for sneezing: call it the hay-fever. What a wonderful man! what a clever man! he understands the hay-fever: call him in! Thus is the hay-fever among the last in the list of fashionables. ["On Fashions in Physic," London Magazine, October 1825]
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Dobermann pinscher (n.)

breed of domestic dog, originally used in police work, 1911 (as pincher Dobermann from 1907), named for Ludwig Dobermann, 19c. German dog-breeder in Thuringia. Pinscher "fox terrier" seems to be a 19c. borrowing from English pinch (see Kluge).

Der Kutscher aus gutem Hause verschafft sich, wie er kann und wenn er kann, einen ganz kleinen englischen Pinscher, der den Pferden sehr gut gut folgt und die großen Dänen von ehedem ersetzt hat, aus J.J. Rousseau's Zeit, der von dem dänischen Hunde umgerannt wurde, wie ihr wißt. ["Paris, oder, Das Buch der Hundert und Ein," Volume 6, Theodor Hell (pseud.), Potsdam, 1833]
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