Etymology
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dictionary (n.)
A book containing either all or the principal words of a language, or words of one or more specified classes, arranged in a stated order, usually alphabetical, with definitions or explanations of their meanings and other information concerning them, expressed either in the same or in another language; a word-book; a lexicon; a vocabulary .... [Century Dictionary]

1520s, from Medieval Latin dictionarium "collection of words and phrases," probably a shortening of dictionarius (liber) "(book) of words," from Latin dictionarius "of words," from dictio "a saying, expression," in Late Latin "a word," noun of action from past-participle stem of dicere "speak, tell, say," from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly."

The Medieval Latin word is said to have been first used by Johannes de Garlandia (John of Garland) as the title of a Latin vocabulary published c. 1220. Probably first English use in title of a book was in Sir Thomas Elyot's "Latin Dictionary" (1538).

As an adjective, "of or pertaining to a dictionary," from 1630s.  Dictionarist "compiler of a dictionary" (1610s) is older than dictionarian (1806 as a noun, 1785 as an adjective). Grose's 1788 "Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue" has "RICHARD SNARY. A dictionary."

DICTIONARY, n. A malevolent literary device for cramping the growth of a language and making it hard and inelastic. This dictionary, however, is a most useful work. [Bierce]
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*deik- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," "also in derivatives referring to the directing of words or objects" [Watkins].

It forms all or part of: abdicate; abdication; addict; adjudge; apodictic; avenge; benediction; betoken; condition; contradict; contradiction; dedicate; deictic; deixis; dictate; diction; dictionary; dictum; digit; disk; ditto; ditty; edict; Eurydice; index; indicate; indication; indict; indiction; indictive; indite; interdict; judge; judicial; juridical; jurisdiction; malediction; malison; paradigm; policy (n.2) "written insurance agreement;" preach; predicament; predicate; predict; prejudice; revenge; soi-disant; syndic; teach; tetchy; theodicy; toe; token; valediction; vendetta; verdict; veridical; vindicate; vindication; voir dire.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit dic- "point out, show;" Greek deiknynai "to show, to prove," dike "custom, usage;" Latin dicere "speak, tell, say," digitus "finger," Old High German zeigon, German zeigen "to show," Old English teon "to accuse," tæcan "to teach."
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OED 
initialism (acronym) of Oxford English Dictionary, attested from 1898, according to the "Oxford English Dictionary."
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N.E.D. 

1885 as abbreviation of New English Dictionary, the short form of the name under which the Oxford English Dictionary was published (A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles). It began to appear in volumes in 1884; in 1895 the title Oxford English Dictionary first appeared on the covers.

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caldron (n.)
spelling of cauldron preferred by other dictionary editors.
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proles (n.)

"offspring," a dictionary word, 1670s, from Latin proles "offspring, progeny" (see prolific).

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harridan (n.)
1700, "one that is half Whore, half Bawd" ["Dictionary of the Canting Crew"]; "a decayed strumpet" [Johnson], probably from French haridelle "a poore tit, or leane ill-favored jade," [Cotgrave's French-English dictionary, 1611], attested in French from 16c., a word of unknown origin.
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despatch 
18c. variant of dispatch (q.v.), apparently the result of an error in the printing of Johnson's dictionary.
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kleptomaniac (n.)

1861; see kleptomania.

Kleptomaniac, n. A rich thief. [Bierce, "Devil's Dictionary"]
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Lovelace (n.)
"fine-mannered libertine" [Century Dictionary], from the name of the hero of Richardson's "Clarissa Harlowe" (1748).
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