mid-14c., destinen, "set apart, ordain or appoint to a use," from Old French destiner (12c.), from Latin destinare "make fast or firm, establish," from de- "completely, formally" (see de-) + -stinare (related to stare "to stand") from PIE *steno-, suffixed form of root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm."
Originally in English of the actions of deities, fate, etc.; of human choices or actions, "predetermine, as by divine decree," from early 16c. Related: Destined.
mid-14c., predestinacioun, "the action of God in foreordaining certain of mankind through grace to salvation or eternal life," from Old French predestinacion and directly from Church Latin praedestinationem (nominative praedestinatio) "a determining beforehand," noun of action from past-participle stem of praedestinare "set before as a goal; appoint or determine beforehand," from Latin prae "before" (see pre-) + destinare "appoint, determine" (see destine (v.)).
The Latin word was first used in the theological sense by Augustine; given prominence by Calvin. Related: Predestinarian "one who believes in the doctrine of predestination" (1660s).
Predestination to Life is the everlasting purpose of God, whereby (before the foundations of the world were laid) he hath constantly decreed by his counsel secret to us, to deliver from curse and damnation those whom he hath chosen in Christ out of mankind, and to bring them by Christ to everlasting salvation, as vessels made to honour. Wherefore, they which be endued with so excellent a benefit of God be called according to God's purpose by his Spirit working in due season: they through Grace obey the calling: they be justified freely: they be made sons of God by adoption: they be made like the image of his onlybegotten Son Jesus Christ: they walk religiously in good works, and at length, by God's mercy, they attain to everlasting felicity. [From article xvii of the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion of the Church of England]
mid-14c., deputen, "to appoint, assign as a substitute or agent," from Old French deputer (14c.), from Late Latin deputare "destine, allot," in classical Latin "to esteem, consider, consider as," literally "to cut off, prune," from de- "away" (see de-) + putare "to think, count, consider," literally "to cut, prune," from PIE root *pau- (2) "to cut, strike, stamp." Meaning "assign to a deputy" is from early 15c. Related: Deputed; deputing.
c. 1400, "subordinate officer, one given the full power of an officer without holding the office," from Anglo-French deputé, noun use of past-participle of Old French députer "appoint, assign" (14c.), from Late Latin deputare "to destine, allot," in classical Latin "to esteem, consider, consider as," literally "to cut off, prune," from de- "away" (see de-) + putare "to think, count, consider," literally "to cut, prune," from PIE root *pau- (2) "to cut, strike, stamp."
Meaning "person appointed or elected to act in the place of another or others" is from 1769.
"to put a mark on," Old English mearcian (West Saxon), merciga (Anglian) "to trace out boundaries;" in late Old English "make a mark or marks on," from Proto-Germanic *markojan (source also of Old Norse merkja, Old Saxon markon "appoint, observe, remark," Old Frisian merkia, Old High German marchon "to limit, plan out," German merken "to mark, note," Middle Dutch and Dutch merken "to set a mark on"), from the root of mark (n.1).
Influenced by the Scandinavian cognates. Meaning "to have a mark" is from c. 1400; that of "to notice, observe" is late 14c. Figurative sense of "designate as if by placing a mark on," hence "to destine," is from late Old English. Meaning "be a noteworthy feature of" is by 1660s. To mark time (1833) is from military drill, originally "move the feet as if marching but remain in place."
The verbs in Romanic are from the nouns, which are early borrowings from Germanic: Old French merchier "to mark, note, stamp, brand," French marquer "to mark," Spanish marcar, Italian marcare.
"create, fashion, form," Middle English shapen, from Old English scapan, past participle of scieppan "to form, create, make out of existing materials; bring into existence; destine" (past tense scop, often used of God).
This is reconstructed to be from Proto-Germanic *skapjanan "create, ordain" (source also of Old Norse skapa, Danish skabe, Old Saxon scapan, Old Frisian skeppa, Middle Dutch schappen "do, treat," Old High German scaffan, German schaffen "shape, create, produce"), from PIE root *(s)kep-, forming words meaning "to cut, scrape, hack" (see scabies), which acquired broad technical senses and in Germanic a specific sense of "to create."
Old English scieppan survived into Middle English as shippen, but shape emerged as a regular verb (with past tense shaped) by 1500s. The old past-participle form shapen survives in misshapen.
Meaning "to form in or with the mind" is from late 14c. Also by late 14c. as "prepare, get ready." The sense of "give a definite form to" is by 1580s. Specifically as "give direction and character to" (one's life, conduct, etc.) is by 1823.
The phrase shape up (v.) is literally "to give form to by stiff or solid material;" attested from 1865 as "progress;" by 1938 as "reform oneself, pull oneself up to a standard;" alliterative variant shape up or ship out is by 1951 in the newspapers, said to be Korean War U.S. military slang, with a suggestion of "do right or get shipped up to active duty."