Etymology
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deficiency (n.)

1630s, "state of falling short, a lack or failing;" 1660s, "that in which a person or thing is deficient, inadequacy," from Late Latin deficientia, from deficient-, present-participle stem of deficere "to desert, revolt, fail," from de "down, away" (see de-) + combining form of facere "to do, make" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). The older English word, now rare or obsolete, was deficience (mid-15c.).

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disease (n.)

early 14c., "discomfort, inconvenience, distress, trouble," from Old French desaise "lack, want; discomfort, distress; trouble, misfortune; disease, sickness," from des- "without, away" (see dis-) + aise "ease" (see ease (n.)). Restricted pathological sense of "sickness, illness" in English emerged by late 14c.; the word still sometimes was used in its literal sense early 17c., and was somewhat revived 20c., usually with a hyphen (dis-ease).

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disease (v.)

mid-14c., disesen, "to make uneasy, trouble; inflict pain," a sense now obsolete; late 14c. as "to have an illness or infection;" late 15c. in the transitive sense of "to infect with a disease, make ill;" from disease (n.). Tyndale (1526) has Thy doughter is deed, disease not the master where KJV has trouble not (Luke viii.49).

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Graves' disease 

"exophthalmic goiter," 1862, named for Irish physician Robert James Graves (1796-1853), who first recognized the disease in 1835. The surname probably is from Old Norse greifi "steward," corresponding to Old English gerefa (see reeve).

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Parkinson's disease 

form of paralysis, 1877, from French maladie de Parkinson (1876), named for English physician James Parkinson (1755-1824), who described it (1817) under the names shaking palsy and paralysis agitans.

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Bright's disease 

"chronic nephritis," 1831, so called for English physician Richard Bright (1789-1858), who in 1827 first described it.

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Hodgkin's disease 

1877, named for English pathologist Dr. Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866) who first described it in 1832.

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Hansen's disease (n.)

1938, named for Norwegian physician Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen (1841-1912) who in 1871 discovered the bacillus that causes it.

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Crohn's disease (n.)

" chronic inflammatory condition of the digestive tract," 1935, for U.S. pathologist Burrill Bernard Crohn, one of the team that wrote the article describing it in 1932.

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Alzheimer's disease (n.)

senium præcox, 1912, the title of article by S.C. Fuller published in "Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases;" named for German neurologist Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915). The disease name was not common before 1970s; shortened form Alzheimer's is recorded from 1954. The surname is from the place name Alzheim, literally "Old Hamlet."

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