Etymology
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dear (adj.)

Old English deore (Anglian diore, West Saxon dyre), "precious, valuable; costly, expensive; glorious, noble; loved, beloved, regarded with affection" from Proto-Germanic *deurja- (source also of Old Saxon diuri "precious, dear, expensive," Old Norse dyrr, Old Frisian diore "expensive, costly," Middle Dutch diere "precious, expensive, scarce, important," Dutch duur, Old High German tiuri, German teuer), a word of unknown etymology. Finnish tiuris, tyyris is from Germanic.

The old sense of "precious, valuable" has become obsolete, but that of "characterized by a high price in consideration of scarcity, absolutely or relatively costly" lingers, though it is perhaps archaic. Used interjectorily (oh, dear; dear me, etc.) indicating pity, surprise, or some other emotion since 1690s, but the intended sense is not clear. As an affectionate address (my dear, father dear), mid-13c. As a polite introductory word to letters, it is attested from mid-15c. The military man's dreaded Dear John letter is attested from 1945. As a noun, from late 14c., perhaps short for dear one, etc.

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deary (n.)

also dearie, 1680s, "a darling," familiar term of endearment, diminutive of dear in the noun sense of "dear one."

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dearness (n.)

early 14c., "quality of being held in esteem or affection," from dear (adj.) + -ness. From 1520s as "quality of being costly."

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dearly (adv.)

Old English deorlice "worthily, excellently;" see dear + -ly (2). From c. 1200 as "with tender affection;" from late 15c. as "at a high price."

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endear (v.)
1580s, "to enhance the value of," also "win the affection of," from en- (1) "make, put in" + dear (adj.). Meaning "to make dear," the main modern sense, is from 1640s. Related: Endeared; endearing.
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dearth (n.)

c. 1300, derthe "scarcity of food," of other situations of scarcity by mid-14c., abstract noun from root of Old English deore "precious, costly" (see dear) + abstract noun suffix -th (2). A common Germanic formation, though not always with the same sense (Old Saxon diurtha "splendor, glory, love," Middle Dutch dierte, Dutch duurte, Old High German tiurida "glory"). Presumably the connecting sense in English is that, in famines, food is costly because scarce.

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darling (n.)

Middle English dereling, from Old English deorling, dyrling "one who is much beloved, a favorite," double diminutive of deor "dear" (see dear (adj.)). The vowel shift from -e- to -a- (16c.) is usual for -er- followed by a consonant (see marsh).

As an adjective "very dear, particularly beloved," from 1590s; in affected use, "sweetly charming" (1805). "It is better to be An olde mans derlyng, than a yong mans werlyng" (1562).

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cherish (v.)

early 14c., cherischen, "hold as dear, treat with tenderness and affection," from Old French cheriss-, present participle stem of chierir "to hold dear" (12c., Modern French chérir), from chier "dear," from Latin carus "dear, costly, beloved" (from PIE root *ka- "to like, desire"). The Latin word also is the source of Italian, Spanish, Portuguese caro; Old Provençal, Catalan car. Meaning "indulge and encourage in the mind" is from late 14c. Related: Cherished; cherishing.

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Farquhar 
surname attested from late 12c., from Gaelic fearchar "very dear one."
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Gertrude 
fem. proper name, from French, from Old High German Geretrudis, from ger "spear" (see gar) + trut "beloved, dear."
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