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darkness (n.)

Old English deorcnysse "absence of light," from dark (adj.) + -ness. The 10c. Anglo-Saxon treatise on astronomy uses þeostrum for "darkness." Figurative use for "sinfulness, wickedness" is from early 14c. From late 14c. as "obscurity," also "secrecy, concealment," also "blindness," physical, mental, or spiritual.

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Erebus 
in Homer, etc., the place of darkness between Earth and Hades, from Latin Erebus, from Greek Erebos, which is of unknown origin, perhaps from Semitic (compare Hebrew erebh "sunset, evening"), or from PIE *regw-es- "darkness" (source also of Sanskrit rajas "the atmosphere, thick air, mist, darkness;" Gothic rikwis "darkness"). Used figuratively of darkness from 1590s.
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temerity (n.)

"extreme venturesomeness, rashness, recklessness," late 14c., from Latin temeritatem (nominative temeritas) "blind chance, accident; rashness, indiscretion, foolhardiness," from temere "by chance, at random; indiscreetly, rashly," related to tenebrae "darkness," from PIE root *teme- "dark" (source also of Sanskrit tamas- "darkness," tamsrah "dark;" Avestan temah "darkness;" Lithuanian tamsa "darkness," tamsus "dark;" Old Church Slavonic tima "darkness;" Old High German dinstar "dark;" Old Irish temel "darkness"). The connecting notion is "blindly, without foreseeing."

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nyctophobia (n.)

"fear of the night or darkness," 1885, medical Latin, from nycto-, variant of nycti- "night, darkness" + -phobia "fear." Related: Nyctophobic.

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benight (v.)
1550s, "to be overtaken by darkness;" 1630s, "to involve with darkness," from be- + night. Figurative sense of "to involve in moral or intellectual darkness" is from c. 1600, and the word is rarely used now except in the figurative past-participle adjective benighted.
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*skoto- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "dark, shade." 

It forms all or part of: nightshade; scotoma; shade; shadow; shady.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek skotos "darkness, gloom;" Albanian kot "darkness;" Old Irish scath, Old Welsh scod, Breton squeut "darkness," Gaelic sgath "shade, shadow, shelter;" Old English scead "partial darkness," sceadu "shade, shadow, darkness," Dutch schaduw, German Schatten, Gothic skadus "shadow." 

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tenebrous (adj.)
"full of darkness," late 15c., from Old French tenebros "dark, gloomy" (11c., Modern French ténébreux), from Latin tenebrosus "dark," from tenebrae "darkness" (see temerity). Related: Tenebrosity.
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benighted (adj.)
1570s, "overtaken by darkness," past-participle adjective from obsolete verb benight (q.v.). Little used in the literal sense, usually it means "in intellectual or moral darkness" (1630s).
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murk (n.)

"gloom, darkness," c. 1300, myrke, from Old Norse myrkr "darkness," from Proto-Germanic *merkwjo- (source also of Old English mirce "murky, black, dark;" as a noun, "murkiness, darkness," Danish mǿrk "darkness," Old Saxon mirki "dark"); perhaps cognate with Old Church Slavonic mraku, Serbo-Croatian mrak, Russian mrak "darkness;" Lithuanian merkti "shut the eyes, blink," from PIE *mer- "to flicker" (see morn). In Middle English also as an adjective (c. 1300, from Old Norse) and a verb. Sometimes spelled mirk, especially in Scotland. Mirk Monday was long the name in Scotland for the great solar eclipse of March 29, 1652 (April 8, New Style).

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caliginous (adj.)
"dim, obscure, dark," 1540s, from Latin caliginosus "misty," from caliginem (nominative caligo) "mistiness, darkness, fog, gloom." Related: Calignously; caliginosity.
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