Etymology
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O 

fifteenth letter of the alphabet, from a character that in Phoenician was called  'ain (literally "eye") and represented "a very peculiar and to us unpronounceable guttural" [Century Dictionary]. The Greeks also lacked the sound, so when they adopted the Phoenician letters they arbitrarily changed O's value to a vowel. (Thus there is no grounds for the belief that the form of the letter represents the shape of the mouth in pronouncing it.) The Greeks later added a special character for "long" O (omega), and the original became "little o" (omicron).

In Middle English and later colloquial use, o or o' can be an abbreviation of on or of, and is still literary in some words (o'clock, Jack-o'-lantern, tam-o'-shanter, cat-o'-nine-tails, will-o'-the-wisp, etc.).

O' the common prefix in Irish surnames is from Irish ó, ua (Old Irish au, ui) "descendant." 

The "connective" -o- is the usual connecting vowel in compounds taken or formed from Greek, where it often is the vowel in the stem. "[I]t is affixed, not only to terms of Greek origin, but also to those derived from Latin (Latin compounds of which would have been formed with the L. connecting or reduced thematic vowel, -i), especially when compounds are wanted with a sense that Latin composition, even if possible, would not warrant, but which would be authorized by the principles of Greek composition." [OED]

As "zero" in Arabic numerals it is attested from c. 1600, from the similarity of shape. Similarly the O blood type (1926) was originally "zero," denoting the absence of A and B agglutinogens.

As a gauge of track in model railroads, by 1905. For o as an interjection of fear, surprise, joy, etc., see oh.

The use of the colloquial or slang -o suffix in wino, ammo, combo, kiddo, the names of the Marx Brothers, etc., "is widespread in English-speaking countries but nowhere more so than in Australia" [OED].

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daddy (n.)

c. 1500, colloquial diminutive of dad, with -y (3). Slang daddy-o is attested by 1949, from bop talk.

Daddy-long-legs is from 1814 in Britain as "crane-fly," a slender, long-legged summer fly. In the U.S., it was used by 1865 as the word for a spider-like arachnid with a small round body and very long, slender legs.

A superstition obtains among our cow-boys that if a cow be lost, its whereabouts may be learned by inquiring of the Daddy-Long-legs (Phalangium), which points out the direction of the lost animal with one of its fore legs. [Frank Cowan, "Curious Facts in the History of Insects, Including Spiders and Scorpions," Philadelphia, 1865]
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sugar daddy (n.)
also sugar-daddy, "elderly man who lavishes gifts on a young woman" [OED], 1926, from sugar + daddy.
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*were-o- 
*wērə-o-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "true, trustworthy."

It forms all or part of: aver; Varangian; veracious; veracity; verdict; veridical; verify; verisimilitude; verism; veritas; verity; very; voir dire; warlock.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin verus "true;" Old Church Slavonic vera "faith," Russian viera "faith, belief;" Old English wær "a compact," Old Dutch, Old High German war, Dutch waar, German wahr "true;" Welsh gwyr, Old Irish fir "true."
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Jell-O (n.)
also sometimes Jello, trademark for powdered gelatin food, advertised from 1900 by Genesee Pure Food Co., Le Roy, N.Y.
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c/o 
addressing abbreviation for care of; common by 1889.
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will-o'-the-wisp (n.)

1660s, earlier Will with the wisp (c. 1600), from the masc. proper name Will + wisp "bundle of hay or straw used as a torch." Compare Jack-o'-lantern.

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Jack-o'-lantern (n.)
also jack-o-lantern, jack-a-lantern, jackolantern, 1660s, "night-watchman;" 1670s as a local name for a will-o-the-wisp (Latin ignis fatuus), mainly attested in East Anglia but also in southwestern England. Literally "Jack of (with) the lantern;" see Jack + lantern. The extension to carved pumpkin lanterns is attested by 1834 in American English.
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tam-o'-shanter (n.)
c. 1840, type of bonnet formerly worn by Scottish plowmen, from Tam O'Shanter "Tom of Shanter," name of hero in a poem of the same name by Robert Burns, written 1790. The woolen cap became fashionable for ladies c. 1887.
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cat-o'-nine-tails (n.)

"nine pieces of knotted cord fastened to a handle and used to flog the bare back," 1690s, probably so called in reference to its "claws." It was a legal instrument of punishment in British Navy until 1881.

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