Etymology
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beef (n.)
c. 1300, "an ox, bull, or cow," also the flesh of one when killed, used as food, from Old French buef "ox; beef; ox hide" (11c., Modern French boeuf), from Latin bovem (nominative bos, genitive bovis) "ox, cow," from PIE root *gwou- "ox, bull, cow." Original plural in the animal sense was beeves.
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beef (v.)
"to complain," slang, 1888, American English, from noun meaning "complaint" (1880s). The noun meaning "argument" is recorded from 1930s. The origin and signification are unclear; perhaps it traces to the common late 19c. complaint of soldiers about the quantity or quality of beef rations.
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beef up (v.)
"add strength," 1941, from college slang, from beef (n.) in slang sense of "muscle-power" (1851).
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beef-eater (n.)
also beefeater, c. 1600 as a general contemptuous term for a well-fed menial; specifically as "warder of the Tower of London" from 1670s; the notion is of "one who eats (another's) beef" (see eater, and compare Old English hlaf-æta "servant," literally "loaf-eater").
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corn (v.)

1550s, "to form into grains, granulate," from corn (n.1). From 1560s as "to preserve and season with grains ('corns') of salt." From 1785 (in corned) as "make drunk," as with corn whiskey. Corned beef has nothing to do with the grain; it is so called for the "corns" or "grains" of salt with which it is preserved.

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beefsteak (n.)
also beef-steak, 1711, from beef (n.) + steak.
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Reuben 

masc. proper name, Old Testament eldest son of Jacob and name of the tribe descended from him, from Greek Rouben, from Hebrew Reubhen, probably literally "Behold a son," from reu, imperative of ra'ah "he saw" + ben "a son."

As a typical name of a farmer, rustic, or country bumpkin, from 1804. The Reuben sandwich of corned beef, sauerkraut, etc., on rye bread, an American specialty (1956) is the same name but "Not obviously connected" with the "country bumpkin" sense in rube [OED], but is possibly from Reuben's restaurant, a popular spot in New York's Lower East Side. Various other Reubens have been proposed as the originator.

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Oxo 

trade name of a brand of beef extract, 1899, British, from ox.

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Kobe 
type of fine beef, 1894, named for the region in Japan where it is raised, from Japanese ko "god" + he "house."
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beeves (n.)
original plural of beef (n.) in the animal sense (compare boevz, plural of Old French buef), now only in restricted use.
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