Etymology
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contest (v.)

c. 1600, "fight or do battle for, strive to win or hold," from French contester "dispute, oppose," from Latin contestari (litem) "to call to witness, bring action," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + testari "to bear witness," from testis "a witness," (see testament).

The notion of the Latin compound is "calling witnesses" as the first step in a legal combat. Meaning "make a subject of contention or dispute, enter into competition for" is from 1610s. Sense of "to argue in opposition, call into question" is from 1660s. Related: Contestable; contested; contesting.

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contest (n.)

"strife; struggle for victory or superiority; an amicable contest for a prize, etc.," 1640s, from contest (v.).

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illness (n.)
"disease, sickness, ailment, malady," 1680s, from ill (adj.) + -ness. Earlier it meant "bad moral quality" (c. 1500).
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sickness (n.)
Old English seocnes "sickness, disease; a disease;" see sick (adj.) and -ness. Formerly synonymous with illness; in late 19c. it began to be restricted to nausea, leaving illness as "a rather more elegant and less definite term" [Century Dictionary].
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biathlon (n.)
"athletic contest in which participants ski and shoot," 1956, from bi- "two" + Greek athlon, literally "contest," but in this case abstracted from pentathlon.
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self-examination (n.)

1640s, "scrutiny into one's own state, conduct, or motives," from self- + examination. By 1955 as "examination of one's own body for signs of illness."

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tournament (n.)
"medieval martial arts contest," c. 1200 (figurative), c. 1300 (literal), from Old French tornement "contest between groups of knights on horseback" (12c.), from tornoier "to joust, tilt, take part in tournaments" (see tourney). Modern use, in reference to games of skill, is recorded from 1761.
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rematch (n.)

"a return match," by 1910, in boxing, from re- "back, again" + match (n.) "contest."

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challenged (adj.)

1570s, "having been called to a contest," past-participle adjective from challenge (v.). As a euphemism for "disabled," 1985.

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bed-rest (n.)
by 1836 as "device for sitting up in bed;" by 1896 as "a resting in bed for recovery from injury or illness;" from bed (n.) + rest (n.).
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