Etymology
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contemplation (n.)

c. 1200, contemplacioun, "religious musing," from Old French contemplation and directly from Latin contemplationem (nominative contemplatio) "act of looking at," noun of action from past-participle stem of contemplari "to gaze attentively, observe; consider, contemplate," originally "to mark out a space for observation" (as an augur does), from assimilated form of com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + templum "area for the taking of auguries" (see temple (n.1)).

From late 14c. as "reflection, thinking, thought, act of holding an idea continuously before the mind." Meaning "act of looking attentively at anything" is from late 15c.

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*tem- 
also *temə-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut."

It forms all or part of: anatomy; atom; contemplate; contemplation; diatom; dichotomy; -ectomy; entomolite; entomology; entomophagous; epitome; phlebotomy; temple (n.1) "building for worship;" tmesis; tome; -tomy; tonsorial; tonsure.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek temnein "to cut," tomos "volume, section of a book," originally "a section, piece cut off;" Old Church Slavonic tina "to cleave, split;" Middle Irish tamnaim "I cut off," Welsh tam "morsel."
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hmm 
representative of a sound made during contemplation or showing mild disapproval, attested from 1868, but this is probably a variation of the hum attested in similar senses from 1590s.
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meditate (v.)

1580s, "to ponder, think abstractly, engage in mental contemplation" (intransitive), probably a back-formation from meditation, or else from Latin meditatus, past participle of meditari "to meditate, think over, reflect, consider," frequentative form of PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures." From 1590s as "to plan in the mind," also "to employ the mind in thought or contemplation," especially in a religious way. Related: Meditated; meditating.

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cogitative (adj.)

late 15c., "having the power of thinking or meditating," from Old French cogitatif (14c.), from Medieval Latin cogitativus, from Latin cogitare "to think" (see cogitation). Meaning "thoughtful, given to contemplation" is from 1650s.

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introversion (n.)
1650s, "action of turning inward" (of thought or contemplation), from Modern Latin introversionem, noun of action from past participle stem of *introvertere (see introvert (v.)). Psychological meaning "tendency to withdraw from the world" is from 1912.
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speculation (n.)
late 14c., "intelligent contemplation, consideration; act of looking," from Old French speculacion "close observation, rapt attention," and directly from Late Latin speculationem (nominative speculatio) "contemplation, observation," noun of action from Latin speculatus, past participle of speculari "observe," from specere "to look at, view" (from PIE root *spek- "to observe").

Meaning "pursuit of the truth by means of thinking" is from mid-15c. Disparaging sense of "mere conjecture" is recorded from 1570s. Meaning "buying and selling in search of profit from rise and fall of market value" is recorded from 1774; short form spec is attested from 1794.
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consideration (n.)

mid-14c., consideracioun, "a beholding, looking at," also "a keeping in mind," also "contemplation, reflection," from Old French consideracion (12c., Modern French considération) and directly from Latin considerationem (nominative consideratio) "consideration, contemplation, reflection," noun of action from past-participle stem of considerare "to look at closely, observe" (see consider).

Meaning "a taking into account, act of paying attention to" is from late 14c.; that of "examination, observation" is from early 15c.. Sense of "thoughtful or sympathetic regard" is from c. 1400. Meaning "that which is or should be considered" is from late 15c. Meaning "something given in payment" (as recompense for service) is from c. 1600.

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study (n.)
c. 1300, "application of the mind to the acquisition of knowledge, intensive reading and contemplation of a book, writings, etc.," from Old French estudie "care, attention, skill, thought; study, school" (Modern French étude), from Latin studium "study, application" (see study (v.)). Also from c. 1300 as "a state of deep thought or contemplation; a state of mental perplexity, doubt, anxiety; state of amazement or wonder." From mid-14c. as "careful examination, scrutiny." Sense of "room furnished with books" is from late 14c. Meaning "a subject of study" is from late 15c. Study hall is attested from 1891, originally a large common room in a college.
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contemplative (adj.)

mid-14c., "devoted to (sacred) contemplation, devout," from Old French contemplatif (12c.) and directly from Latin contemplativus "speculative, theoretical," formed (after Greek theoretikos) from contemplat-, past-participle stem of contemplari "to gaze attentively, observe; consider, contemplate" (see contemplate). Meaning "given to continued and absorbed reflection" is from late 15c. Related: Contemplatively.

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