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consul (n.)

late 14c., "one of the two chief magistrates in the Roman republic," from Old French consule and directly from Latin consul "magistrate in ancient Rome," probably originally "one who consults the Senate," from consulere "to deliberate, take counsel" (see consultation).

Its modern usage, "agent appointed by a sovereign state to reside in a foreign place to protect the interests of its citizens and commerce there," began with use of the word as appellation of a representative chosen by a community of merchants living in a foreign country (c. 1600), an extended sense that developed 13c. in the Spanish form of the word.

In French history it refers to the title given to the three magistrates of the republic after the dissolution of the Directory in 1799.

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consular (adj.)

early 15c., "pertaining to a Roman consul," from Latin consularis"of or pertaining to a consul," from consul (see consul). From 17c. as "pertaining to the office of a consul" in the modern sense in international law.

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consulate (n.)

late 14c., "government of Rome by the consuls," from Latin consulatus "office of a consul," from consul (see consul). Also used in reference to the consular government of France from 1799-1804. In reference to the office of a modern consul in international law, from 1702 (earlier in this sense was consulship, 1610s).

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proconsul (n.)

late 14c., "governor or military commander of an ancient Roman province," having there most of the duties and authorities of a consul in Rome, from Latin proconsul "governor of a province; military commander," from phrase pro consule "(acting) in place of a consul," from pro "in place of" (see pro-) + ablative of consul. In modern use usually rhetorical, but it was a title of certain commissioners in the French Revolution, was used in English for "deputy consul," and was used again of U.S. administrators in Iraq during the early 21c. occupation. Related: Proconsular; proconsulate; proconsulship.

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consultation (n.)

early 15c., "a meeting of persons to consult together;" 1540s, "act of consulting," from Latin consultationem (nominative consultatio) "a mature deliberation, consideration," noun of action from past-participle stem of consultare "to consult, ask counsel of; reflect, consider maturely," frequentative of consulere "to deliberate, consider," originally probably "to call together," as in consulere senatum "to gather the senate" (to ask for advice), from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) +  *selere "take, gather," for a total sense of "gather (the Senate) together," from PIE *selho- "to take, seize."

De Vaan writes: "Since consuleredoes not look like a derivative of consul (we would rather expect consulare), it appears that the verb was original and meant 'to get together, deliberate'."

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Pompeii 

Roman town buried by volcanic eruption 79 C.E., excavated beginning in 1755; the name is from Oscan pompe "five" (from PIE root *penkwe- "five"), in reference to its five districts. Related: Pompeian, which also can refer to the Roman consul Pompey or his followers.

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praetor (n.)
elected magistrate in ancient Rome (subordinate to consuls), early 15c., from Latin praetor "one who goes before;" originally "a consul as leader of an army," from prae "before" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward," hence "in front of, before") + root of ire "to go" (from PIE root *ei- "to go").
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concordat (n.)

"agreement between church and state on a mutual matter," 1610s, from French concordat (16c.), from Medieval Latin concordatum, noun use of Latin concordatum, neuter past participle of concordare "to agree," from concors (genitive concordis) "of one mind" (see concord (n.)).

The most celebrated modern concordat is that concluded in 1801 between Napoleon Bonaparte as first consul and Pius VII., defining the restored privileges of the Roman Catholic Church in France, and regulating in detail the relations between the ecclesiastical and civil powers. [Century Dictionary]
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consult (v.)

"ask advice of, seek the opinion of as a guide to one's own judgment," 1520s, from French consulter (16c.), from Latin consultare "consult, take the advice of," frequentative of consulere "to take counsel, meet and consider," originally probably "to call together," as in consulere senatum "to gather the senate" (to ask for advice), from Proto-Italic *kom-sel-e-, from *kom- "with, together" (see con-) + *sel-e- "take, gather together," from PIE root *s(e)lh- "to take" (said to be also the source of Middle Welsh dyrllid "to earn," Gothic saljan "to sacrifice," Old Norse selja "to sell, hand over"). Related: Consulted; consulting.

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consultative (adj.)

"pertaining to consultation, advisory," 1580s, from Medieval Latin *consultativus, from consultat-, past-participle stem of consultare "consult, take the advice of" (see consult).

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