Etymology
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conquer (v.)

c. 1200, cunquearen, "to achieve" (a task), from Old French conquerre "conquer, defeat, vanquish," from Vulgar Latin *conquaerere (for Latin conquirere) "to search for, procure by effort, win," from assimilated form of Latin com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + quaerere "to seek, gain" (see query (v.)).

From c. 1300 as "to win (from); defeat (an adversary), overcome, subdue; make a conquest, be victorious, win or secure (something)." From early 14c. as "to acquire (a country) by force of arms." Related: Conquered; conquering.

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conquistador (n.)

"a conqueror," especially "one of the 16c. Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru," 1830, from Spanish conquistador, literally "conqueror," noun of action from conquistar "to conquer," from Vulgar Latin *conquistare, from Latin conquistus, past participle of conquirere "to seek for" (see conquer).

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reconquer (v.)

"conquer again, recover by conquest," 1580s, from French reconquerre (12c.), from re- "again, back" (see re-) + conquerre (see conquer). Related: Reconquered; reconquering.

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conkers (n.)

"child's game played with horse chestnuts," originally with snail shells, 1876, probably a variant of conquer. The goal was to break the other player's item.

In the boy's game of conkers the apexes of two shells are pressed together until one is broken, the owner of the other being the victor. [C. Clough Robinson, "A Glossary of Words Pertaining to the Dialect of Mid-Yorkshire," 1876]
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conquest (n.)

early 14c., "the defeat of an adversary;" mid-14c., "subjugation or conquering by an armed force," from Old French conquest "acquisition" (Modern French conquêt), and Old French conqueste "conquest, acquisition" (Modern French conquête), also from Medieval Latin conquistus, conquista, all ultimately from the past participle of Vulgar Latin *conquaerere "to search for, procure by effort, win" (see conquer). From late 14c. with specific reference to the acquisition of power in England by William Duke of Normandy.

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vanquish (v.)

mid-14c., "to defeat in battle, conquer," from Old French venquis-, extended stem of veintre "to defeat," from Latin vincere "to overcome, conquer" (from nasalized form of PIE root *weik- (3) "to fight, conquer"). Influenced in Middle English by French vainquiss-, present stem of vainquir "conquer," from Old French vainkir, alteration of veintre. Related: Vanquished; vanquishing.

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invictus 

Latin adjective, "unconquered, unsubdued, invincible," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + victus, past participle of vincere "to conquer, overcome" (from nasalized form of PIE root *weik- (3) "to fight, conquer").

It matters not how strait the gate,
How charged with punishments the scroll,
I am the master of my fate,
I am the captain of my soul.
[William Ernest Henley, "Invictus"]
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vincible (adj.)

1540s, from French vincible and directly from Latin vincibilis "that which can be gained; easily maintained," from vincere "to overcome, conquer" (from nasalized form of PIE root *weik- (3) "to fight, conquer"). A vincible ignorance in theology is an ignorance in one who possesses the means of overcoming it.

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evict (v.)

mid-15c., "recover (property) by judicial means," from Latin evictus, past participle of evincere "overcome and expel, conquer, subdue, vanquish; prevail over; supplant," from assimilated form of ex "out," or perhaps here merely intensive (see ex-) + vincere "conquer" (from nasalized form of PIE root *weik- (3) "to fight, conquer"). Sense of "expel by legal process" first recorded in English 1530s, from a post-classical sense of the Latin word. Related: Evicted; evicting. Compare evince.

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