Etymology
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concubine (n.)

c. 1300, "a paramour, a woman who cohabits with a man without being married to him;" also, in reference to Hebrew, Greek, Roman and other civilizations where the position was recognized by law, "a wife of inferior condition, a secondary wife," from Latin concubina (fem.), concubinus (masc.) "one who lives unmarried with a married man or woman." Usually the concubine was of a lower social order, but the institution, though below matrimonium, was less reproachful than adulterium or stuprum. The word itself is from concumbere "to lie with, to lie together, to cohabit," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + cubare "to lie down" (see cubicle).

Such concubines were allowed by the Greek and Roman laws, and for many centuries they were more or less tolerated by the church, for both priests and laymen. The concubine of a priest was sometimes called a priestess. [Century Dictionary]

In Middle English, as in Latin, sometimes used of a man who cohabits with a woman without marriage. Related: Concubinary; concubinal.

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concubinage (n.)

late 14c., "state of being a concubine; act or practice of cohabiting in intimacy without legal marriage," from Old French concubinage, from concubin, from Latin concubina (see concubine). In ancient Roman law, "a permanent cohabitation between persons to whose marriage there were no legal obstacles."

It was distinguished from marriage proper (matrimonium) by the absence of "marital affection"—that is, the intention of founding a family. As no forms were prescribed in the later times either for legal marriage or concubinage, the question whether the parties intended to enter into the former or into the latter relation was often one of fact to be determined from the surrounding circumstances, and especially with reference to a greater or less difference of rank between them. [Century Dictionary]
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bedfellow (n.)
"close friend, roommate, one who shares a bed with another," mid-15c., from bed (n.) + fellow (n.). Also (late 15c) "concubine." Earlier in the "close companion" sense was bed-fere (early 14c.). Old English had simply bedda. Bedsister "husband's concubine" is recorded in Middle English (c. 1300).
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sultana (n.)
wife, mother, daughter, or concubine of a sultan, 1580s, from Italian sultana, fem. of sultano (see sultan). Middle English had soudanesse "sultaness" (late 14c.).
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Pallas 

Greek goddess' name, another name for Athene, literally "little maiden," related to pallake "concubine," and probably somehow connected to Avestan pairika "beautiful women seducing pious men." The asteroid so named was discovered 1802 by Olbers and Bremen.

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trull (n.)
"a low prostitute or concubine; a drab, strumpet, trollop" [OED], 1510s, from German trulle "trollop, wench, hussy," perhaps cognate with troll (n.), or perhaps from troll (v.), compare Middle High German trolle "awkward fellow," Swabian trull "a thick, fat woman."
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odalisque (n.)

"female slave or concubine in a harem," 1680s, from French odalisque (1660s), from Turkish odaliq "maidservant," from odah "room in a harem," literally "chamber, hall," + -liq, suffix expressing function. In French, the suffix was confused with -isque, which is ultimately from Greek -isk(os) "of the nature of, belonging to."

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left-handed (adj.)
late 14c., of persons, "having the left hand stronger or more capable than the right;" 1650s of tools, etc., "designed for use with the left hand," from left (adj.) + -handed. In 15c. it also could mean "maimed." Sense of "underhanded" is from early 17c., as in left-handed compliment (1787, also attested 1855 in pugilism slang for "a punch with the left fist"), as is that of "illicit" (as in left-handed marriage, for which see morganatic; 17c. slang left-handed wife "concubine"). Related: Left-handedly; left-handedness.
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gasket (n.)
1620s, caskette, originally nautical, "small rope or plaited coil" used to secure a furled sail, of uncertain origin, perhaps from French garcette "a gasket," literally "little girl, maidservant," diminutive of Old French garce "young woman, young girl; whore, harlot, concubine" (13c.), fem. of garçon (see garcon). Century Dictionary notes Spanish garcette "a gasket," also "hair which falls in locks." Machinery sense of "packing (originally of braided hemp) to seal metal joints and pistons" first recorded 1829.
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paramour (n.)

early 14c., "a lover or wooer" of either sex, noun use of adverbial phrase par amour (c. 1300) "passionately, with strong love or desire," from Anglo-French and Old French par amour, from accusative of amor "love," from amare "to love" (see Amy). Originally a term for Christ (by women) or the Virgin Mary (by men), it came to mean "darling, sweetheart" (mid-14c.) and "wife, husband," also, in a bad sense, "mistress, concubine; (a woman's) male lover; clandestine lover" (late 14c.) which from 17c. became the only sense, except in poetry.

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