Etymology
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complex (adj.)

1650s, "composed of interconnected parts, formed by a combination of simple things or elements," from French complexe "complicated, complex, intricate" (17c.), from Latin complexus "surrounding, encompassing," past participle of complecti "to encircle, embrace," in transferred use, "to hold fast, master, comprehend," from com "with, together" (see com-) + plectere "to weave, braid, twine, entwine," from PIE *plek-to-, suffixed form of root *plek- "to plait."

The meaning "involved, intricate, complicated, not easily analyzed" is first recorded 1715. Complex sentence, for one containing one or more subordinate clauses in addition to the principal clause, is attested from 1776.

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complex (n.)

1650s, "a whole comprised of interconnected parts," from complex (adj.). Latin completus as a noun meant "a surrounding, embracing, connection, relation." Psychological sense of "connected group of repressed ideas" was established by C.G. Jung, 1907.

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complexity (n.)

1721, "composite nature, quality or state of being composed of interconnected parts," from complex (adj.) + -ity. Meaning "intricacy" is from 1790. Meaning "a complex condition" is from 1794.

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histidine (n.)
complex amino acid, 1896, from German histidin; see histo- + chemical suffix -idine (see -ide + -ine (2)).
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complicate (v.)

1620s, "to intertwine," from Latin complicatus "folded together; confused, intricate," past participle of complicare "to involve," literally "to fold together," from com "with, together" (see com-) + plicare "to fold, weave" (from PIE root *plek- "to plait"). Meaning "to make more complex or intricate" is recorded from 1832, from earlier sense "to combine in a complex way" (17c.). Related: Complicated; complicating.

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intricacy (n.)
c. 1600, "state of being complex;" 1610s, "an intricate situation or condition," from intricate (adj.) + -cy. Related: Intricacies.
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complexion (n.)

mid-14c., complexioun, "temperament, natural disposition of body or mind," from Old French complexion, complession "combination of humors," hence "temperament, character, make-up," from Latin complexionem (nominative complexio) "combination" (in Late Latin, "physical constitution"), from complexus "surrounding, encompassing," past participle of complecti "to encircle, embrace," in transferred use, "to hold fast, master, comprehend," from com "with, together" (see com-) + plectere "to weave, braid, twine, entwine," from PIE *plek-to-, suffixed form of root *plek- "to plait."

The Middle English sense is from the old medicine notion of bodily constitution or general nature resulting from blending of the four primary qualities (hot, cold, dry, moist) or humors (blood, phlegm, choler, black choler). The specific meaning "color or hue of the skin of the face" developed by mid-15c. In medieval physiology, the color of the face was believed to indicate temperament or health. The word rarely is used in the sense of "state of being complex."

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holophrastic (adj.)
"having the force of a whole phrase; expressive of a complex idea," 1837, from holo- "whole" + Latinized form of Greek phrastikos, from phrazein "to indicate, tell, express" (see phrase (n.)).
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popularize (v.)

"to make a complex topic intelligible to the common people," 1833; see popular + -ize. Earlier "to cater to popular taste" (1590s); "to make popular" (1797). Related: Popularized; popularizer; popularizing.

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inferiority (n.)

"state of being inferior," 1590s, probably from Medieval Latin *inferioritas; see inferior + -ity. Inferiority complex first attested 1919.

The surrender of life is nothing to sinking down into acknowledgment of inferiority. [John C. Calhoun, Senate debate, Feb. 19, 1847]
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