Etymology
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competent (adj.)

late 14c., "suitable, answering all requirements, sufficient, adequate," from Old French competent "sufficient, appropriate, suitable," and directly from Latin competentem (nominative competens), present participle of competere "coincide, agree" (see compete). It preserves the classical Latin sense of the verb, whereas the meaning in compete is a post-classical evolution. Meaning "able, fit, having ability or capacity" is from 1640s. Legal sense "having legal capacity or qualification" is late 15c. Related: Competently.

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incompetent (adj.)
1610s, "insufficient," from French incompétent, from Late Latin incompetentem (nominative incompetens) "insufficient," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + Latin competentem (see competent). Sense of "lacking qualification or ability" first recorded 1630s. The noun meaning "incompetent person" is from 1866. Related: Incompetently.
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cognizant (adj.)

"having knowledge;" in law, "competent to take legal or judicial notice," 1744, back-formation from cognizance.

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qualified (adj.)

1580s, "fitted by accomplishments or endowments;" 1590s, "affected by some degree of restriction or modification;" past-participle adjective from qualify (v.). By 1886 and into mid-20c. as a British English euphemism for bloody or damned.

To be competent is to have the natural abilities or the general training necessary for any given work ; to be qualified is to have, in addition to competency, a special training, enabling one to begin the work effectively and at once. He who is competent may or may not require time to becomequalified; he who is not competent cannot become qualified, for it is not in him. [Century Dictionary]
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marriageable (adj.)

"capable of marrying, fit or competent to marry, of an age and condition suitable for marriage," 1550s, from marriage + -able. Earlier was mariable (mid-15c.). Related: Marriageability.

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ratification (n.)

"act by which a competent authority gives sanction and validity to something done by another," mid-15c., ratificacion, from Old French ratification (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin ratificationem (nominative ratificatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of ratificare "to confirm, approve" (see ratify).

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regulation (n.)

1670s, "act of regulating; state of being reduced to order," noun of action from regulate. Meaning "a rule for management prescribed by a superior or competent authority" is from 1715. As an adjective, "having a fixed pattern; in accord with a rule or standard," by 1836. Related: Regulations.

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agathist (n.)

1816, from Greek agathos "good" (see Agatha) + -ist.

Doctor Kearney, who formerly, with so much reputation, delivered lectures in this place on the history of Rome, observed to me once, that he was not an optimist, but an "agathist"; that he believed that every thing tended to good, but did not think himself competent to determine what was absolutely the best. The distinction is important, and seems to be fatal to the system of Optimism. [George Miller, "Lectures on the Philosophy of Modern History," Dublin, 1816]
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passport (n.)

c. 1500, passe-porte, "authorization to travel through a country," from Old French passeport "authorization to pass through a port" to enter or leave a country (15c.), from passe, imperative of passer "to pass" (see pass (v.)) + port "port" (see port (n.1)). The original sense is obsolete; the meaning "document issued by competent civil authority granting permission to the person named in it to travel in or out of a country or authenticating his right to protection while abroad" is from 1540s. In early use often indicating principally the right to leave one's country.

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connoisseur (n.)

1714, "a critical judge of any art, one well-acquainted with any of the fine arts and thus competent to pass judgment on its products," from French connoisseur (Modern French connaiseur), from Old French conoisseor "an expert, a judge, one well-versed," from conoistre "to know," from Latin cognoscere "to get to know, recognize, become well-acquainted with," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + gnoscere "recognize" (from PIE root *gno- "to know").

Transferred sense of "a critic in matters of taste (in food, wine, etc.) is from 1796. The attempt in dictionaries from 1730s to introduce a corresponding abstract noun connoissance from French did not succeed. Related: Connoisseurship

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