Etymology
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companionship (n.)

"fellowship, association, company," 1540s, from companion + -ship.

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Robinson Crusoe 

"man without companionship," 1768, from the eponymous hero of Daniel Defoe's fictional shipwreck narrative (1719).

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camaraderie (n.)

"companionship, good-fellowship," 1840, from French camaraderie, from camarade "comrade" (see comrade).

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loneliness (n.)

1580s, "condition of being solitary," from lonely + -ness. Meaning "feeling of being dejected from want of companionship or sympathy" is from 1814.

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sodality (n.)

"companionship, fellowship, association with others," c. 1600, from French sodalité or directly from Latin sodalitatem (nominative sodalitas) "companionship, a brotherhood, association, fellowship," from sodalis "companion," perhaps literally "one's own, relative," related to suescere "to accustom," from PIE *swedh-, extended form of root *s(w)e-, pronoun of the third person and reflexive (see idiom). Especially of religious guilds in the Catholic Church.

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attached (adj.)

"affectionate, devoted, fond," 1793, past-participle adjective from attach in the sense of "join to or with in companionship or affection" (1765). Earlier the adjective meant "arrested" (1610s). The literal sense of "fastened on" is from 1841.

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mate (v.1)

c. 1500, transitive, "to equal, rival," 1590s as "to match as mates, couple, join in marriage," from mate (n.1). Also, of animals, "to pair for the purpose of breeding" (c. 1600). Intransitive sense of "be joined in companionship" is from 1580s. Related: Mated; mating.

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gather (v.)

Old English gadrian, gædrian "unite, agree, assemble; gather, collect, store up" (transitive and intransitive), used of flowers, thoughts, persons; from Proto-Germanic *gaduron "come or bring together, unite" (source also of Old English gæd "fellowship, companionship," gædeling "companion;" Middle Low German gadderen; Old Frisian gaderia; Dutch gaderen "to gather," gade "spouse;" German Gatte "husband;" Gothic gadiliggs), perhaps from PIE *ghedh- "to unite, join" (see good (adj.)). Change of spelling from -d- to -th- is 1500s, reflecting earlier change in pronunciation (as in  father). Related: Gathered; gathering.

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fellowship (n.)

c. 1200, feolahschipe "companionship," from fellow + -ship. Sense of "a body of companions" is from late 13c. Meaning "spirit of comradeship, friendliness" is from late 14c. As a state of privilege in English colleges, from 1530s. In Middle English it was at times a euphemism for "sexual intercourse" (carnal fellowship).

To fellowship with is to hold communion with; to unite with in doctrine and discipline. This barbarism now appears with disgusting frequency in the reports of ecclesiastical conventions, and in the religious newspapers generally. [Bartlett, "Dictionary of Americanisms," 1848]

But Chaucer and Wyclif used it as a verb in Middle English, "to have fellowship with."

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dissociate (v.)

1610s (implied in dissociated) "sever the association or connection of," especially "cut off from society," from Latin dissociatus, past participle of dissociare "to separate from companionship, disunite, set at variance," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + sociare "to join," from socius "companion, ally," from PIE *sokw-yo-, suffixed form of root *sekw- (1) "to follow."

Attested from 1540s as a past-participle adjective meaning "separated." Dissociated in psychology (1890) was "characterized by mental disjunction," hence dissociated personality (1905) "pathological state in which two or more distinct personalities exist in the same person."

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