Etymology
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colon (n.1)

"punctuation mark consisting of two dots, one above the other, used to mark grammatical discontinuity less than that indicated by a period," 1540s, from Latin colon "part of a verse or poem," from Greek kōlon "part of a verse," literally "limb, member" (especially the leg, but also of a tree limb), also, figuratively, "a clause of a sentence," a word of uncertain etymology.

The meaning evolved in modern languages from "independent clause" to the punctuation mark that sets it off. In ancient grammar a colon was one of the larger divisions of a sentence.

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colon (n.2)

"large intestine," late 14c., from Latin colon, Latinized form of Greek kolon (with a short initial -o-) "large intestine," which is of unknown origin.

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colonic (adj.)

"pertaining to or affecting the colon," 1906, from colon (n.2) + adjectival ending -ic.

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colorectal (adj.)

"pertaining to the colon and the rectum," by 1918, from combining form of colon (n.2) + rectal.

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colonoscopy (n.)

by 1902 (earlier procto-colonoscopy, 1896), from colon (n.2) + -scopy. Colonoscope is attested from 1884 

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colitis (n.)

"inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon," 1860, from combining form of colon (n.2) + -itis "inflammation."

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colectomy (n.)

"surgical excision of part of the colon," 1882, from combining form of colon (n.2) + -ectomy "a cutting, surgical removal."

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semicolon (n.)
punctuation-mark, 1640s, a hybrid coined from Latin-derived semi- + Greek-based colon (n.1). The mark itself was (and is) in Greek the point of interrogation.
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E. coli (n.)

bacteria inhabiting the gut of man and animals, by 1921, short for Escherichia coli (1911), named for German physician Theodor Escherich (1857-1911) with Latin genitive of colon "colon" (see colon (n.2)).

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colostomy (n.)

1888, from combining form of colon (n.2) + Modern Latin -stoma "opening, orifice," from Greek stoma "opening, mouth" (see stoma). Colotomy "operation of making an incision in the colon" is attested from 1860, from Greek tome "a cutting."

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