Etymology
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cog (n.)

c. 1300, "wheel having teeth or cogs;" late 14c., "tooth on a wheel," probably a borrowing from a Scandinavian language (compare Norwegian kugg "cog") and cognate with Middle High German kugel "ball."

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cog-wheel (n.)

"wheel having teeth or cogs," early 15c., from cog (n.) + wheel (n.).

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kugel (n.)
kind of pudding in Jewish cookery, 1846, from Yiddish kugel, literally "ball," from Middle High German kugel "ball, globe" (see cog (n.)).
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cam (n.1)

1777, "a projecting part of a rotating machinery used to impart motion to another part," from Dutch cam "cog of a wheel," originally "comb," from Proto-Germanic *kambaz "comb," from PIE root *gembh- "tooth, nail." It is thus a cognate of English comb (n.). This might have combined with English camber "having a slight arch;" or the whole thing could be from camber. It converts regular rotary motion into irregular, fast-and-slow rotary or reciprocal motion. "The original method was by cogs or teeth fixed or cut at certain points in the circumference or disc of a wheel ..." [OED]. Cam-shaft attested from 1850.

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com- 
Origin and meaning of com-

word-forming element usually meaning "with, together," from Latin com, archaic form of classical Latin cum "together, together with, in combination," from PIE *kom- "beside, near, by, with" (compare Old English ge-, German ge-). The prefix in Latin sometimes was used as an intensive.

Before vowels and aspirates, it is reduced to co-; before -g-, it is assimilated to cog- or con-; before -l-, assimilated to col-; before -r-, assimilated to cor-; before -c-, -d-, -j-, -n-, -q-, -s-, -t-, and -v-, it is assimilated to con-, which was so frequent that it often was used as the normal form.

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cognize (v.)

"perceive, become conscious of," 1650s, back-formation from cognizance. The French word is connaître (Old French conoistre). Related: Cognized; cognizing.

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cognition (n.)

mid-15c., cognicioun, "ability to comprehend, mental act or process of knowing," from Latin cognitionem (nominative cognitio) "a getting to know, acquaintance, knowledge," noun of action from past participle stem of cognoscere "to get to know, recognize," from assimilated form of com"together" (see co-) + gnoscere "to know" (from PIE root *gno- "to know"). In 17c. the meaning was extended to include perception and sensation.

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cogitate (v.)

"to think earnestly or seriously," 1560s (transitive); 1630s (intransitive); from Latin cogitatus, past participle of cogitare "to think" (see cogitation). Related: Cogitated; cogitating.

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cognizable (adj.)

1670s, "capable of being known," also "liable to be tried in a given court or jurisdiction," from stem of cognizance (q.v.) + -able. Related: Cognizably; cognizability.

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