Etymology
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clitoris (n.)

"erectile organ of female mammals," 1610s, coined in Modern Latin from Late Greek kleitoris, a diminutive, but the exact sense intended by the coiners is uncertain. Perhaps from Greek kleiein "to sheathe," also "to shut," in reference to its being covered by the labia minora. The related Greek noun kleis has a secondary meaning "a key, a latch or hook (to close a door);" see close (v.), and compare slot (n.2).

Alternatively [Watkins], from Greek kleitys, a variant of klitys "side of a hill," from PIE *kleitor-, suffixed form of root *klei- "to lean," via with a sense of "little hill." Some ancient medical sources give a supposed Greek verb kleitoriazein "to touch or titillate lasciviously, to tickle" (compare German slang der Kitzler "clitoris," literally "the tickler"), but in this case the verb is likely from the anatomy.

As for the Greeks themselves, they seem to have called the thing nymphē, a figurative use, literally "bride, lovely young woman;" Beekes also has kystho-korone "clitoris," literally "crown of the vagina."

The anatomist Mateo Renaldo Colombo (1516-1559), professor at Padua, claimed to have discovered it ("De re anatomica," 1559, p. 243). He called it amor Veneris, vel dulcedo "the love or sweetness of Venus." It had been known earlier to women.

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clit (n.)
by 1969, slang shortening of clitoris.
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clitoral (adj.)
1887, from stem of clitoris + -al (1). Related: Clitorally. Alternative form clitorial is attested from 1879.
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clitoridectomy (n.)

"surgical removal of the clitoris from the body," 1866, from Latinized stem of Greek kleitoris (see clitoris) + -ectomy "a cutting, surgical removal." Originally in reference to a proposed cure for hysteria.

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*klei- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to lean."

It forms all or part of: acclivity; anticline; clemency; client; climate; climax; cline; clinic; clinical; clino-; clitellum; clitoris; decline; declivity; enclitic; heteroclite; incline; ladder; lean (v.); lid; low (n.2) "small hill, eminence;" matroclinous; patroclinous; polyclinic; proclitic; proclivity; recline; synclinal; thermocline.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit srayati "leans," sritah "leaning;" Old Persian cay "to lean;" Lithuanian šlyti "to slope," šlieti "to lean;" Latin clinare "to lean, bend," clivus "declivity," inclinare "cause to bend," declinare "bend down, turn aside;" Greek klinein "to cause to slope, slant, incline;" Old Irish cloin "crooked, wrong;" Middle Irish cle, Welsh cledd "left," literally "slanting").

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glans (n.)
head of the penis or clitoris, 1640s, from Latin glans "acorn," also used of acorn-shaped things (see gland).
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erection (n.)
mid-15c., "establishment; advancement," from Late Latin erectionem (nominative erectio), noun of action from past participle stem of erigere "to set up, erect" (see erect (adj.)). Meanings "the putting up" (of a building, etc.), "stiffening of the penis" (also sometimes of the turgidity and rigidity of the clitoris) are both from 1590s.
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cunnilingus (n.)

1884 (by 1845 in German, 1824 in medical Latin), from Latin cunnus "vulva, female pudenda" (also, vulgarly, "a woman") + lingere "to lick" (from PIE root *leigh- "to lick"). Latin cunnus is of disputed origin, perhaps literally "gash, slit," from PIE *sker- (1) "to cut," or [Watkins] literally "sheath," from PIE *kut-no-, from root *(s)keu- "to cover, conceal."

The Latin properly would mean "one who licks a vulva," but it is used in English in reference to the action. The verb ought to be *cunnilingue. As an agent-noun, Fletcher has lick-twat (1656). Gordon Williams ["A Dictionary of Sexual Language and Imagery in Shakespearean and Stuart Literature," 1994] writes that Nicolas Chorier's 17c. "Satyra Sotadica" "relates how Gonsalvo of Cordova, as an old man, would lick his mistress's middle parts, which he called, with a geographical pun, going to Liguria" (from Latin ligurio "to lick").

Cunnilingus was a very familiar manifestation in classical times; ... it tends to be especially prevalent at all periods of high civilization. [Havelock Ellis, "Studies in the Psychology of Sex," 1905]

Dutch slang has a useful noun, de befborstel, to refer to the mustache specifically as a tool for stimulating the clitoris; probably from beffen "to stimulate the clitoris with the tongue."

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