c. 1300, "to call, call out; to ask or demand by virtue of right or authority," from accented stem of Old French clamer "to call, name, describe; claim; complain; declare," from Latin clamare "to cry out, shout, proclaim," from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout." Related: Claimed; claiming.
Meaning "to maintain as true, assert a belief or opinion" is from 1864 ("A common use, regarded by many as inelegant" - Century Dictionary, 1895); claim properly should not stray too far from its true meaning of "to demand recognition of a right." Specific sense "to make a claim" (on an insurance company) is from 1897.
early 14c., "a demand of a right; right of claiming," from Old French claime "claim, complaint," from clamer (see claim (v.)). Meaning "thing claimed or demanded" is from 1792; specifically "piece of land allotted and taken" (chiefly U.S. and Australia, in reference to mining); claim-jumper is attested from 1839. Insurance sense "application for guaranteed compensation" is from 1878.
"one who demands anything as a right," 1747, from claim (v.), on model of appellant, defendant, etc., or from French noun use of present participle of clamer.
late 14c., "practice oratory, make a formal speech or oration," from Old French declamer (Modern French déclamer) and directly from Latin declamare "to practice public speaking, to bluster," from de-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see de-) + clamare "to cry, shout" (from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout").
At first in English spelled declame, but altered under influence of claim. From 1570s as "speak or write as an exercise in elocution;" from 1795 as "speak aloud passionately in an appeal to the emotions of the audience." Related: Declaimed; declaiming.
late 14c., pretenden, "to profess, put forward as a statement or assertion, maintain" (a claim, etc.), "to direct (one's) efforts," from Old French pretendre "to lay claim," from Latin praetendere "stretch in front, spread before, put forward; put forward as an excuse, allege," from prae "before" (see pre-) + tendere "to stretch" (from PIE root *ten- "to stretch").
Main modern sense of "feign, use as a pretext, put forward a false claim" is recorded from c. 1400; the older sense of simply "lay claim to" is behind the royal pretenders (1690s) in English history (see pretender). Meaning "to play, make believe" is recorded from 1865. In 17c. pretend also could mean "make a suit of marriage for," from a sense in French. Related: Pretended; pretending.
c. 1600, "declare;" 1640s, "vindicate, maintain, or defend by words or measures," from Latin assertus, past participle of asserere/adserere "to claim, lay claim to, appropriate," from ad "to" (see ad-) + serere "to join together, put in a row" (from PIE root *ser- (2) "to line up"). Related: Asserted; asserting. To assert oneself "stand up for one's rights or authority" is recorded from 1879.
c. 1400, disclaimen, "renounce, relinquish, or repudiate a legal claim," originally in a feudal sense, from Anglo-French disclaimer(c. 1300), Old French desclamer "disclaim, disavow," from des- (see dis-) + clamer "to claim," from Latin clamare "to cry out, shout, proclaim," from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout." Meaning "disavow any connection with, reject as not belonging to oneself" is from 1590s. Related: Disclaimed; disclaiming.