Etymology
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chroma (n.)

in reference to color, "intensity of distinctive hue, degree of departure of a color-sensation from that of white or gray," 1889, from Latinized form of Greek khrōma "surface of the body, skin, color of the skin," also used generically for "color" and, in plural, "ornaments, make-up, embellishments," a verbal noun from khroizein "to color, stain, to touch the surface of the body," khrosthenai "to take on a color or hue," from khros, khroia "surface of the body, skin."

Beekes considers this noun to be of uncertain origin. It sometimes is explained as being somehow from PIE *ghreu- "to rub, grind" (see grit (n.)).

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chromato- 

before vowels chromat-, word forming element indicating "color," in scientific use also "chromatin," from Latinized form of Greek khrōmato-, from khrōma "color" (see chroma).

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isochromatic (adj.)

"having the same color," 1817, from iso- "equal, the same" + stem of chroma + -ic.

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chromatography (n.)

"a treatise on colors," 1731, from chromato-, Latinized combining form of Greek khrōma (genitive khrōmatos) "color" (see chroma), denoting "color" or "chromatin" + -graphy. Related: Chromatograph.

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chromium (n.)

metallic element, 1807, Latinized from French chrome (Fourcroy and Haüy), from Greek chroma "color" (see chrome; also see chroma). So called for its colorful compounds. Related: Chromite.

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chromosphere (n.)

"gaseous envelope around the sun," 1868, coined by English astronomer Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer (1836-1920), from chromo-, from Greek khrōma "color" (see chroma) + sphere. So called for its redness. Related: Chromospheric.

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chromosome (n.)

1889, from German Chromosom, coined 1888 by German anatomist Wilhelm von Waldeyer-Hartz (1836-1921), from Latinized form of Greek khrōma "color" (see chroma) + -some (3)). So called because the structures contain a substance that stains readily with basic dyes.

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chromatin (n.)

protoplasm in cell nuclei, 1882, from German, coined 1879 by German anatomist Walther Flemming (1843-1905), from Latinized form of Greek khrōmat-, the correct combinational form of khrōma "color" (see chroma) + chemical suffix -in (2). So called because it has a special affinity for coloring matter and stains readily. Related: Chromatid. Compare chromosome.

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monochrome (n.)

1660s, "painting or drawing done in different tints of a single color," from Latinized form of Greek monokhrōmos, also monokhrōmatos, "of a single color," from monos "single, alone" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated") + khrōma (genitive khrōmatos) "color, complexion, skin" (see chroma). As an adjective from 1849. Photographic sense is recorded from 1940.

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chrome (n.)

1800, "chromium," from French chrome, the name proposed by Fourcroy and Haüy for a new element, from Greek khrōma "color" (see chroma); so called because it makes colorful compounds. The metallic element had been isolated 1798 by French chemist Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, who named it chrome. It is now known as chromium (q.v.).

Chrome continued in commercial use in English for "chrome steel" (steel with 2 percent or so chrome) after the chemical name was changed internationally. As a short form of chromium plating it dates from 1937. Related: Chromic.

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