Etymology
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Christmas (n.)

"Church festival observed annually in memory of the birth of Christ," late Old English Cristes mæsse, from Christ (and retaining the original vowel sound) + mass (n.2).

Written as one word from mid-14c. As a verb, "to celebrate Christmas," from 1590s. Father Christmas is attested in a carol attributed to Richard Smart, Rector of Plymtree (Devon) from 1435-77. Christmas-tree in the modern sense is attested by 1835 in American English, rendering German Weihnachtsbaum. Christmas cards were first designed in 1843, popular by 1860s; the phrase Christmas-card was in use by 1850. Christmas present is from 1769. Christmas Eve is Middle English Cristenmesse Even (c. 1300).

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Christmas-tide (n.)

also Christmastide, "period from Christmas Eve to Epiphany," 1620s, from Christmas + tide (n.).

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Christmassy (adj.)

"characteristic of or suitable for Christmas," 1852, from Christmas + -y (2).

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Xmas (n.)
"Christmas," 1551, X'temmas, wherein the X is an abbreviation for Christ in Christmas, English letter X being identical in form (but not sound signification) to Greek chi, the first letter of Greek Christos "Christ" (see Christ). The earlier way to abbreviate the word in English was Xp- or Xr- (corresponding to the "Chr-" in Greek Χριστος), and the form Xres mæsse for "Christmas" appears in the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" (c. 1100).
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figgy (adj.)

also figgey, 1540s "sweet" (as figs are), from fig (n.1) + -y (2). From 1846 (in a book of Cornish words) as "full of figs or raisins." The figgy pudding of the Christmas carol is a dish of dried figs stewed in wine that dates back to the Middle Ages but was more often associated with Lent than Christmas.

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nativity (n.)

early 12c., Nativite, "feast-day celebrating the birth of Christ, Christmas," from Old French nativité "birth, origin, descent; birthday; Christmas" (12c.), from Late Latin nativitatem (nominative nativitas) "birth," from Latin nativus "born, native" (see native (adj.)). Late Old English had nativiteð, from earlier Old French nativited. From late 14c. as "fact of being born; circumstances attending one's birth."

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guiser (n.)
"masquerader, mummer, one who goes from house to house, whimsically disguised, and making diversion with songs and antics, usually at Christmas," late 15c., agent noun from guise.
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ember-goose (n.)

also embergoose, "loon," 1744, from Norwegian emmer-gaas, perhaps so called from its appearing on the coast in the ember-days before Christmas.

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caroling (n.)
c. 1300, "a round dance accompanied by singing," verbal noun from carol (v.). As "a going from place to place in a group singing Christmas carols" by 1879.
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snapdragon (n.)
garden plant, 1570s, from snap (n.) + dragon. So called from fancied resemblance of antirrhinum flowers to a dragon's mouth. As the name of a Christmas game of plucking raisins from burning brandy and eating them alight, from 1704.
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