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child (n.)

Old English cild "fetus, infant, unborn or newly born person," from Proto-Germanic *kiltham (source also of Gothic kilþei "womb," inkilþo "pregnant;" Danish kuld "children of the same marriage;" Old Swedish kulder "litter;" Old English cildhama "womb," lit. "child-home"); no certain cognates outside Germanic. "App[arently] originally always used in relation to the mother as the 'fruit of the womb'" [Buck]. Also in late Old English, "a youth of gentle birth" (archaic, usually written childe). In 16c.-17c. especially "girl child."

The wider sense "young person before the onset of puberty" developed in late Old English. Phrase with child "pregnant" (late 12c.) retains the original sense. The sense extension from "infant" to "child" also is found in French enfant, Latin infans. Meaning "one's own child; offspring of parents" is from late 12c. (the Old English word was bearn; see bairn). Figurative use from late 14c. Most Indo-European languages use the same word for "a child" and "one's child," though there are exceptions (such as Latin liberi/pueri).

The difficulty with the plural began in Old English, where the nominative plural was at first cild, identical with the singular, then c.975 a plural form cildru (genitive cildra) arose, probably for clarity's sake, only to be re-pluraled late 12c. as children, which is thus a double plural. Middle English plural cildre survives in Lancashire dialect childer and in Childermas.

Child abuse is attested by 1963; child-molester from 1950. Child care is from 1915. Child's play, figurative of something easy, is in Chaucer (late 14c.):

I warne yow wel, it is no childes pley To take a wyf withouten auysement. ["Merchant's Tale"]
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child-proof (adj.)
1933, from child (n.) + proof (n.). As a verb by 1951.
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brain-child (n.)
"idea, creation of one's own mind," 1850, from brain (n.) + child. Earlier was the alliterative brain-brat (1630).
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love-child (n.)

"child born out of wedlock, child of illicit love," 1798, from love (n.) + child. Compare German Liebeskind. Earlier was love brat (17c.).

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child-bearing (n.)

also childbearing, "bringing forth of a child, the action of producing children," late 14c., from child + verbal noun of bear (v.). As an adjective from late 14c.

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childe (n.)
"youth of gentle birth," used as a kind of title, late Old English, variant spelling of child (q.v.).
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childless (adj.)

"having no children or offspring," c. 1200, from child (n.) + -less. Related: Childlessness.

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childbirth (n.)

also child-birth, "act of bringing forth a child, labor," mid-15c., from child + birth (n.).

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childhood (n.)

"state of being a child; period of life from birth to puberty," Old English cildhad; see child + -hood. Similar formation in German Kindheit.

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