Etymology
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-one 
chemical suffix, from Greek -one, female patronymic (as in anemone, "daughter of the wind," from anemos); in chemical use denoting a "weaker" derivative. Its use in forming acetone (1830s) gave rise to the specialized chemical sense.
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-ate (3)

in chemistry, word-forming element used to form the names of salts from acids in -ic; from Latin -atus, -atum, suffix used in forming adjectives and thence nouns; identical with -ate (1).

The substance formed, for example, by the action of acetic acid (vinegar) on lead was described in the 18th century as plumbum acetatum, i.e. acetated lead. Acetatum was then taken as a noun meaning "the acetated (product)," i.e. acetate. [W.E. Flood, "The Origins of Chemical Names," London, 1963]
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chemo- 

before vowels chem-, word-forming element denoting "relation to chemical action or chemicals," from combining form of chemical (adj.), used to form scientific compound words from c. 1900. In 19c., chemico- was used.

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-ite (2)
chemical salt suffix, from French -ite, alteration of -ate (see -ate (3)).
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-ose (2)
standard ending in chemical names of sugars, originally simply a noun-forming suffix, taken up by French chemists mid-19c.; it has no etymological connection with sugar. It appears around the same time in two chemical names, cellulose, which would owe it to the French suffix, and glucose, where it would be a natural result from the Greek original. Flood favors origin from glucose.
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-lite 
word-forming element meaning "stone," from French -lite, variant of -lithe, from Greek lithos "stone" (see litho-). The form perhaps influenced by chemical word-forming element -ite (1).
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-amide 
also amide, in chemical use, 1850, word-forming element denoting a compound obtained by replacing one hydrogen atom in ammonia with an element or radical, from French amide, from ammonia + -ide.
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-yl 

chemical suffix used in forming names of radicals, from French -yle, from Greek hylē "wood," also "building stuff, raw material" (from which something is made), of unknown origin. The use in chemistry traces to the latter sense (except in methylene, where it means "wood").

It was introduced into chemical nomenclature by Liebig and Wohler when, in 1832, they used the term benzoyle for the radical which appeared to be the "essential material" of benzoic acid and related compounds. [Flood]
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hexa- 
before vowels and in certain chemical compound words hex-, word-forming element meaning "six," from Greek hexa-, combining form of hex "six," from PIE root *sweks- (see six).
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-in (2)
word-forming element in chemistry, usually indicating a neutral substance, antibiotic, vitamin, or hormone; a modification and specialized use of -ine (2).
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