Etymology
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chastise (v.)

"to inflict pain upon to punish and recall to duty, to punish for the purpose of correcting or reclaiming," c. 1300, chastisen, from Old French chastiier "to warn, advise, instruct; chastise, admonish; punish; dominate, tame" (12c., Modern French châtier), from Latin castigare "to set or keep right, to reprove, chasten, to punish," literally "to make pure" (see castigate). Or perhaps from Middle English chastien (see chasten) + -ise, though this would be early for such a native formation. The form of the modern word "is not easily accounted for" [OED]. Related: Chastised; chastising.

He alone may chastise who loves. [Rabindranath Tagore, "The Crescent Moon," 1913]
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chastisement (n.)

"pain and suffering inflicted for punishment and correction," c. 1300, from chastise + -ment.

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chasten (v.)

"inflict trouble or pain on for the purpose of correction," 1520s, with -en (1) + the word it replaced, obsolete verb chaste "to correct (someone's) behavior" (Middle English chastien, c. 1200), from Old French chastiier "to punish" (see chastise). Now chiefly in reference to moral discipline, divine rather than corporal punishment. Related: Chastened; chastening.

Whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth [Hebrews xii.6]
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punitive (adj.)

"inflicting or involving punishment," 1620s, from French punitif (16c.) or directly from Medieval Latin punitivus, from Latin punitus, past participle of punire "to punish, correct, chastise" (see punish).

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castigate (v.)

"to chastise, punish," c. 1600, from Latin castigatus, past participle of castigare "to correct, set right; purify; chastise, punish," from castus "pure" (see caste) + agere "to do" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move"). The notion behind the word is "make someone pure by correction or reproof." Compare purge (v.), from purus + agere. Related: Castigated; castigating; castigator; castigatory.

If thou didst put this soure cold habit on To castigate thy pride, 'twere well. [Shakespeare, "Timon" IV.iii (1607)]
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discipline (v.)

c. 1300, disciplinen, "to subject to (penitential) discipline, correct, chastise, punish," from Old French descepliner and directly from Medieval Latin disciplinare, from Latin disciplina (see discipline (n.)). Meaning "instruct, educate, train" is from late 14c. Related: Disciplined; disciplines; disciplining.

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punish (v.)

c. 1300, punishen, "inflict a penalty on," from Old French puniss-, extended present-participle stem of punir "to punish," from Latin punire "punish, correct, chastise; take vengeance for; inflict a penalty on, cause pain for some offense," earlier poenire, from poena "penalty, punishment" (see penal). Colloquial meaning "to inflict heavy damage or loss" is recorded from 1801, originally in pugilism. Related: Punished; punishing.

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twit (v.)
"to blame, reproach, taunt, upbraid," 1520s, twite, shortened form of Middle English atwite, from Old English ætwitan "to blame, reproach," from æt "at" (see at) + witan "to blame," from Proto-Germanic *witanan "to look after, guard, ascribe to, reproach" (source also of Old English wite, Old Saxon witi, Old Norse viti "punishment, torture;" Old High German wizzi "punishment," wizan "to punish;" Dutch verwijten, Old High German firwizan, German verweisen "to reproach, reprove," Gothic fraweitan "to avenge"), from PIE root *weid- "to see." For sense evolution, compare Latin animadvertere, literally "to give heed to, observe," later "to chastise, censure, punish." Related: Twitted; twitting. As a noun meaning "a taunt" from 1520s.
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