early 15c., "provide with a charter," from charter (n.). Meaning "to hire by special contract" is attested from 1806. Related: Chartered; chartering.
"formal written instrument bestowing privileges and rights, serving as legal evidence of them," c. 1200, from Old French chartre (12c.) "charter, letter, document, covenant," from Latin chartula/cartula, literally "little paper," diminutive of charta/carta "paper, document" (see chart (n.)). Meaning "aircraft hired for a particular purpose" is from 1922.
"collection of charters," 1570s, from Medieval Latin chartularium, from Latin chartula "a charter, record" (see charter (n.)).
1839 in English political history, in reference to the reform party active 1836-48, from "The People's Charter," which contained their principles (universal suffrage, abolition of the property qualification for serving in Parliament, equal representation, etc.). Related: Chartist (1838).
1660s, a variant of patron used in foreign contexts, from Dutch patroon (a French loan-word) or French patron "master, patron," from Old French (see patron; also see -oon); used from 1758 in parts of New York and New Jersey colonies for "landholder," especially one with certain manorial privileges (abolished gradually in the early republic) under the old Dutch governments by the charter of 1629.
c. 1400, "proprietor, one who possesses or holds the title to a thing," also "worldly person, person tied to worldly goods or personal comforts," from noun uses of Old French proprietaire and Medieval Latin proprietarius "of a property owner" (see proprietary (adj.)). From 1630s in reference to the American colonies, "grantee or owner of a colony" (called proprietary colonies in distinction from charter colonies and royal colonies or provinces.
c. 1400, endosse "confirm or approve" (a charter, bill, etc.), originally by signing or writing on the back of the document, from Old French endosser (12c.), literally "to put on the back," from en- "put on" (see en- (1)) + dos "back," from Latin dossum, variant of dorsum "back" (see dorsal). Assimilated 16c. in form to Medieval Latin indorsare. Figurative sense of "confirm, approve" is recorded in English first in 1847. Related: Endorsed; endorsing.
You can endorse, literally, a cheque or other papers, &, metaphorically, a claim or argument, but to talk of endorsing material things other than papers is a solecism. [Fowler]
"powerful person," 1670s, from Great Mogul (1580s), the common designation among Europeans for the Mongol emperor of India after the conquest of 1520s, from Persian and Arabic mughal, mughul, alteration of Mongol (q.v.), the Asiatic people. As a name for the best quality of playing cards, by 1742, so called for the design on the back.
A Motion was made on behalf of the plaintiff for an injunction to restrain the defendant from making use of the Great Mogul as a stamp upon his cards, to the prejudice of the plaintiff, upon a suggestion, that the plaintiff had the sole right to this stamp, having appropriated it to himself, conformable to the charter granted to the card-makers' company by King Charles the First [Blanchard versus Hill, High Court of Chancery, Dec. 18, 1742]