Etymology
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charcoal (n.)

"coal made by subjecting wood to smothered combustion," mid-14c., charcole, first element is either Old French charbon "charcoal," or, on the current theory, obsolete charren "to turn" (from Old English cerran) + cole "coal," thus, "to turn to coal."

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char (v.)
"to reduce to charcoal," 1670s, probably a back-formation from charcoal (q.v.). Related: Charred; charring.
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carbonization (n.)
"operation of converting wood or other organic substance into coal or charcoal," 1804, from carbon + -ization. Related: Carbonize; carbonized.
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carbonara (n.)

in cookery, a pasta dish served with a sauce made from eggs, olive oil, cream, cheese, and strips of bacon or ham, 1958, from Italian alla carbonara, which perhaps from carbonara "charcoal kiln," and meaning "cooked (as if) in a kiln, or from or influenced by carbonata "charcoal-grilled salt pork." Or it may be a reference somehow to the Carbonari, the 19c. secret society of Italian patriots.

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carbonaceous (adj.)
1791, "pertaining to or consisting of charcoal or coal;" 1794, "pertaining to or consisting of carbon;" see carbon + -aceous.
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tandoori (adj.)

in reference to a type of northern Indian and Pakistani cooking using a charcoal-fired clay oven, 1958, from adjectival form of Urdu or Punjabi tandur "cooking stove," a regional word of uncertain origin. As a noun by 1969.

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anthrax (n.)
late 14c., "severe boil or carbuncle," from Latin anthrax "virulent ulcer," from Greek anthrax "charcoal, live coal," also "carbuncle," which is of unknown origin; probably [Beekes] from a pre-Greek language. Specific sense of the malignant disease in sheep and cattle (and occasionally humans) is from 1876.
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collier (n.)

late 14c. (late 13c. as a surname), collere "charcoal maker and seller," agent noun from Middle English col (see coal). They were notorious for cheating their customers. Meaning "digger in a coal mine" is from 1590s. Sense of "coasting-vessel for hauling coal" is from 1620s.

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carbon (n.)
non-metallic element occurring naturally as diamond, graphite, or charcoal, 1789, coined 1787 in French by Lavoisier as charbone, from Latin carbonem (nominative carbo) "a coal, glowing coal; charcoal," from PIE root *ker- (3) "heat, fire."

Carbon 14, long-lived radioactive isotope used in dating organic deposits, is from 1936. Carbon-dating (using carbon 14) is recorded from 1958. Carbon cycle is attested from 1912; carbon footprint was in use by 2001. Carbon-paper "paper faced with carbon, used between two sheets for reproduction on the lower of what is drawn or written on the upper" is from 1855, earlier it was carbonic paper (1850).
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seacoal (n.)
also sea-coal, old name for "mineral coal" (as opposed to charcoal), mid-13c.; earlier, in Old English, it meant "jet," which chiefly was found washed ashore by the sea. The coal perhaps so called from resemblance to jet, or because it was first dug from beds exposed by wave erosion. From sea + coal. As it became the predominant type used, the prefix was dropped.
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