Etymology
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chagrin (v.)

"vex, mortify," 1660s (implied in chagrined), from chagrin (n.). Related: Chagrining.

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chagrin (n.)

1650s, "melancholy," from French chagrin "melancholy, anxiety, vexation" (14c.), from Old North French chagreiner or Angevin dialect chagraigner "sadden," which is of unknown origin, perhaps [Gamillscheg] from Old French graignier "grieve over, be angry," from graigne "sadness, resentment, grief, vexation," from graim "sorrowful," which is perhaps from a Germanic source (compare Old High German gram "angry, fierce").

But OED and other sources trace it to an identical Old French word, borrowed into English phonetically as shagreen, meaning "rough skin or hide" (the connecting notion being "roughness, harshness"), which is itself of uncertain origin. The modern sense of "feeling of irritation from disappointment, mortification or mental pain from the failure of aims or plans" is from 1716.

The town of Chagrin Falls in northeastern Ohio, U.S., was founded 1837 and named for the nearby falls of the Chagrin River. The source of the river name is uncertain; it might be a corruption of Seguin, the name of a Frenchman who is said to have established a trading post nearby in the 1740s.

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mortify (v.)

late 14c., mortifien, "to kill, destroy the life of," from Old French mortefiier "destroy, overwhelm, punish," from Late Latin mortificare "cause death, kill, put to death," literally "make dead," from mortificus "producing death," from Latin mors (genitive mortis) "death" (from PIE root *mer- "to rub away, harm," also "to die" and forming words referring to death and to beings subject to death) + combining form of facere "to make, to do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").

Religious sense of "subdue the flesh by abstinence and discipline" is attested from early 15c. Sense of "humiliate, chagrin, vex" is recorded by 1690s (compare mortification). Related: Mortified; mortifying.

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neo-conservative (n.)

also neoconservative; used in the modern sense by 1979:

My Republican vote [in the 1972 presidential election] produced little shock waves in the New York intellectual community. It didn't take long — a year or two — for the socialist writer Michael Harrington to come up with the term "neoconservative" to describe a renegade liberal like myself. To the chagrin of some of my friends, I decided to accept that term; there was no point calling myself a liberal when no one else did. [Irving Kristol, "Forty Good Years," The Public Interest, spring 2005]

The term is attested from by 1964 (neo-conservatism is by 1959; new conservative is from mid-1950s), originally often applied to Russell Kirk and his followers, who would be philosophically opposed to the later neocons. From neo- "new" + conservative (n.).

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