Etymology
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cancer (n.)

Old English cancer "spreading sore, malignant tumor" (also canceradl), from Latin cancer "a crab," later, "malignant tumor," from Greek karkinos, which, like the Modern English word, has three meanings: a crab, a tumor, and the zodiac constellation represented by a crab. This is from PIE *karkro-, a reduplicated form of the root *kar- "hard."

Greek physicians Hippocrates and Galen, among others, noted similarity of crabs to some tumors with swollen veins. The Old English word was displaced by French-influenced doublet canker but was reintroduced in the modern medical sense c. 1600. In reference to the zodiac sign, it is attested from late Old English; the meaning "person born under the zodiac sign of Cancer" is from 1894. The sun being in Cancer at the summer solstice, the constellation had association in Latin writers with the south and with summer heat. Cancer stick "cigarette" is a slang phrase attested from 1959.

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cervical (adj.)

1680s, "of or pertaining to the neck," from French cervical, from Latin cervix (see cervix). The meaning "of or pertaining to the neck of the womb" attested by 1832. Related: Cervically.

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carcinogen (n.)

"cancer-causing substance," 1853, from carcinoma "malignant tumor, cancer" + -gen.

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chancre (n.)

also chanker, "venereal ulcer, syphilitic sore," c. 1600, from French chancre (15c.), literally "cancer," from Latin cancer (see cancer).

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cancerous (adj.)

1560s, "afflicted with cancer," from cancer + -ous. The figurative sense, "like a cancer, virulent" is from 1660s.

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cancrivorous (adj.)

"crab-eating," 1885, from combining form of Latin cancer "crab" (see cancer) + -vorous "eating."

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carcinoma (n.)

"a propagating malignant tumor," 1721, from Latin carcinoma, from Greek karkinoma "a cancer," from karkinos "a cancer," literally "a crab" (see cancer) + -oma. Related: Carcinomatous. The classical plural is carcinomata.

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canker (n.)

late Old English cancer "spreading ulcer, cancerous tumor," from Latin cancer "malignant tumor," literally "crab" (see cancer, which is its doublet). The form was influenced in Middle English by Old North French cancre "canker, sore, abscess" (Old French chancre, Modern French chancre).

The word was the common one for "cancer" until c. 1700, but since the reintroduction of cancer in a more scientific sense it has tended to be restricted to gangrenous sores of the mouth. Also used since 15c. of caterpillars and insect larvae that eat plant buds and leaves. As a verb, "to corrode, corrupt," from late 14c. Related: Cankered; cankerous.

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telethon (n.)

prolonged TV fundraiser, 1949, from television + marathon (see -athon). Milton Berle's 16-hour television cancer fundraiser in April 1949 might have been the first to be so called.

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