"road or path raised above the natural level of the ground," as a dry passage over wet places or along the top of an embankment, 1570s, from Middle English cauceweye "raised road" (mid-15c.). The first element is from Anglo-French cauce, Old North French cauciee (12c., Modern French chaussée), from Vulgar Latin *via calciata "paved way," from Latin calcis, genitive of calx (2) "limestone," or Late Latin calciare "to stamp with the heels, tread" (on notion of a road or mound across marshy ground made firm by treading down), from Latin calx (1) "heel." For second element, see way (n.).
Old English cest "box, coffer, casket," usually large and with a hinged lid, from Proto-Germanic *kista (source also of Old Norse and Old High German kista, Old Frisian, Middle Dutch, German kiste, Dutch kist), an early borrowing from Latin cista "chest, box," from Greek kistē "a box, basket," from PIE *kista "woven container" (Beekes compares Middle Irish cess "basket, causeway of wickerwork, bee-hive," Old Welsh cest).
The meaning of the English word was extended to "thorax, trunk of the body from the neck to the diaphragm" c. 1400, replacing breast (n.) in that sense, on the metaphor of the ribs as a "box" for the heart. Meaning "place where public money is kept (common chest, mid-15c.) was extended to "public funds" (1580s). Chest of drawers is from 1670s.
type of strong, sweet white wine, c. 1400, from Provençal malmesie or Middle Dutch malemesye, both from Medieval Latin malmasia, from Medieval Greek Monembasia "Monemvasia," a town in the southern Peloponnesus that was an important center of wine production in the Middle Ages. The town is joined to the mainland by a causeway, and its name is literally "(town of the) one entrance," from monos "alone, only" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated") + embasis "entering into," from en- "in" + basis "a going, a stepping, a base" (see basis).
vpon that hyll is a cyte called Mal[v]asia, where first grewe Malmasye and yet dothe; howbeit hit groweth nowe more plentuously in Cadia and Modona, and no where ellys. [Sir Richard Guylforde, "Pylgrymage," 1506]
The wine later was made in the Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands, but the name remained. Another form of it in Middle English was malvesy, from Old French malvesie, from Italian malvasia, the Italian form of the Greek town name.
"thick, cotton stuff with a corded or ridged surface," 1774, probably from cord + obsolete 17c. duroy, name of a coarse fabric made in England, which is of unknown origin. Folk etymology is from *corde du roi "the king's cord," but this is not attested in French, where the term for the cloth was velours à côtes. As an adjective from 1789. Applied in U.S. to a road of logs across swampy ground (1780s) on similarity of appearance.
CORDUROY ROAD. A road or causeway constructed with logs laid together over swamps or marshy places. When properly finished earth is thrown between them by which the road is made smooth; but in newly settled parts of the United States they are often left uncovered, and hence are extremely rough and bad to pass over with a carriage. Sometimes they extend many miles. They derive their name from their resemblance to a species of ribbed velvet, called corduroy. [Bartlett]
"any structure that affords passage over a ravine or river," Old English brycge, from Proto-Germanic *brugjo (source also of Old Saxon bruggia, Old Norse bryggja, Old Frisian brigge, Dutch brug, Old High German brucca, German Brücke), from PIE root *bhru "log, beam," hence "wooden causeway" (source also of Gaulish briva "bridge," Old Church Slavonic bruvuno "beam," Serbian brv "footbridge").
The original notion is of a beam or log. Compare Old Church Slavonic mostu, Serbo-Croatian most "bridge," probably originally "beam" and a loanword from Germanic, related to English mast (n.1). For vowel evolution, see bury. Meaning "bony upper part of the nose" is from early 15c.; of stringed instruments from late 14c. The bridge of a ship (by 1843) originally was a "narrow raised platform athwart the ship whence the Captain issues his orders" [Sir Geoffrey Callender, "Sea Passages"].
Bridge in steam-vessels is the connection between the paddle-boxes, from which the officer in charge directs the motion of the vessel. [Smyth, "The Sailor's Word-book," 1867]