Etymology
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cartilage (n.)
"gristle; firm, elastic animal tissue," early 15c., from Old French cartilage and directly from Latin cartilaginem (nominative cartilago) "cartilage, gristle," which is possibly related to cratis "wickerwork" (see hurdle (n.)).
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cartilaginous (adj.)
"gristly, consisting of cartilage," 1540s, from French cartilagineux and directly from Latin cartilaginosus, from cartilago (genitive cartilaginis) "cartilage, gristle" (see cartilage).
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tendril (n.)

"leafless plant-organ attaching to another for support," 1530s, from French tendrillon "bud, shoot, cartilage," perhaps a diminutive of tendron "cartilage," from Old French tendre "soft" (see tender (adj.)), or else from Latin tendere "to stretch, extend" (from PIE root *ten- "to stretch").

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gristle (n.)

the popular name of cartilage, Old English gristle "cartilage," related to grost "gristle," from Proto-West Germanic *gristl- (source also of Old Frisian and Middle Low German gristel, Old High German crostila, Middle High German gruschel), which is of obscure origin, perhaps from a non-IE substrate language.

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thyroid (adj.)

1690s (in reference to both the cartilage and the gland), from Greek thyreoeides "shield-shaped" (in khondrosthyreoeides "shield-shaped cartilage," used by Galen to describe the "Adam's apple" in the throat), from thyreos "oblong, door-shaped shield" (from thyra "door," from PIE root *dhwer- "door, doorway") + -eides "form, shape" (see -oid). The noun, short for thyroid gland, is recorded from 1849.

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chondro- 

word-forming element in scientific compounds meaning "cartilage," from Latinized form of Greek khondros "cartilage" (of the breastbone), also "grain, grain of salt, seed, barley-grain," of uncertain origin. This is sometimes said to be from the PIE root meaning "to grind" which is the source of English grind (v.), but there are serious phonological objections and the word might be non-Indo-European [Beekes, "Etymological Dictionary of Greek"]. The body material so called for its gristly nature.

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brisket (n.)
"breast or rib-meat of an animal," mid-14c., brusket, perhaps from Old French bruschet, with identical sense of the English word, or from Old Norse brjosk "gristle, cartilage" (related to brjost "breast") or Danish bryske or Middle High German brusche "lump, swelling;" from PIE *bhreus- "to swell, sprout" (see breast (n.)).
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trachea (n.)
late 14c., from Medieval Latin trachea (13c.), as in trachea arteria, from Late Latin trachia, from Greek trakheia, in trakheia arteria "windpipe," literally "rough artery" (so called from the rings of cartilage that form the trachea), from fem. of trakhys "rough," from PIE *dhre-gh-, suffixed form of root *dher- (1). See artery for connection with windpipe in Greek science. Related: Tracheal.
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lyssophobia (n.)
"morbid dread of having caught rabies," a psychological condition which sometimes mimicked the actual disease, 1874, Modern Latin, from -phobia + Greek lyssa (Attic lytta) "rabies, canine madness," also the name given to the "worm" of cartilage under a dog's tongue," an abstract word probably literally "wolf-ness" and related to lykos "wolf" (see wolf (n.)); but some see a connection with "light" words, in reference to the glittering eyes of the mad.
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