Etymology
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carl (n.)

c. 1300, "bondsman; common man, man of low birth," from Old Norse karl "man (as opposed to "woman"), male, freeman," from Proto-Germanic *karlon- (source also of Dutch karel "a fellow," Old High German karl "a man, husband), the same base that produced Old English ceorl "man of low degree" (see churl) and the masc. proper name Carl.

The Mellere was a stout carle for the nones [Chaucer]
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Jungian (adj.)
1921, "of or pertaining to the psychoanalytic school of Dr. Carl Gustav Jung" (1875-1961); for suffix, see -ian.
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lanthanum (n.)
metallic rare earth element, 1841, coined in Modern Latin by Swedish chemist and mineralogist Carl Gustav Mosander (1797-1858), who discovered it in 1839, from Greek lanthanein "to lie hidden, escape notice," from PIE root *ladh- "to be hidden" (see latent). So called because the element was "concealed" in the earth from which he extracted it.
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extrovert (n.)

"outgoing, overtly expressive person," 1916, extravert (spelled with -o- after 1918, by influence of introvert), from German Extravert, from extra "outside" (see extra-) + Latin vertere "to turn" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend"). Used (with introvert) in English by doctors and scientists in various literal senses since 1600s, but popularized in a psychological sense early 20c. by Carl Jung. Related: Extroverted.

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synchronicity (n.)
1953; from synchronic + -ity. Originally in Jung. Synchroneity is from 1889, but equally malformed, and see synchronism.
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Faberge (adj.)
1902 from Peter Carl Fabergé (1846-1920), Russian jeweler.
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complex (n.)

1650s, "a whole comprised of interconnected parts," from complex (adj.). Latin completus as a noun meant "a surrounding, embracing, connection, relation." Psychological sense of "connected group of repressed ideas" was established by C.G. Jung, 1907.

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introvert (n.)
1878, in zoology, "part or organ which is turned in upon itself," from introvert (v.). The psychological sense "introverted person" (opposed to extrovert) is 1917, from German, introduced there by C.G. Jung (1875-1961).
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Charlemagne 
king of the Franks (742-814), literally "Carl the Great," from French form of Medieval Latin Carolus Magnus (see Charles + Magnus).
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