Etymology
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Korea 

by 1690s, from Chinese Gao li, name of a dynasty founded 918, literally "high serenity." Japanese Chosen is from Korean Choson, literally "land of morning calm," from cho "morning" + son "calm." Related: Korean (1610s). In early use Corea, Corean.

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South Africa 

1815 as a name for a distinct region that had been partly settled by Europeans; 1910 as the name of a nation.

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Saigon 

southern Vietnamese city, capital of former South Vietnam, named for its river, which bears a name of uncertain origin.

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Manchuria 

large part of China east of Mongolia and north of Korea, named for the Manchu (literally "pure") people + -ia. Related: Manchurian. Manchurian Candidate is 1959 as a novel, 1962 as a film.

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Sens 

city in north-central France, Roman Senones, the capital of the Gaulish people of the same name.

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Kabul 

capital of Afghanistan, named for its river, which carries a name of unknown origin.

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Vietnam 

country in Southeast Asia, from Vietnamese Viet, the people's name + nam "south." Division into North and South lasted from 1954 to 1976. Vietnam War attested by 1963.

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Moscow 

Russian capital, named for the Moskva River, the name of which is of unknown origin. Moscow mule vodka cocktail is attested from 1950.

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Benjamin 

masc. proper name, in Old Testament, Jacob's youngest son (Genesis xxxv.18), from Hebrew Binyamin, literally "son of the south," though interpreted in Genesis as "son of the right hand," from ben "son of" + yamin "right hand," also "south" (in an East-oriented culture). Compare Arabic cognate yaman "right hand, right side, south;" yamana "he was happy," literally "he turned to the right."

The right was regarded as auspicious (see left and dexterity). Also see Yemen, southpaw, and compare deasil "rightwise, turned toward the right," from Gaelic deiseil "toward the south; toward the right," from deas "right, right-hand; south." Also compare Sanskrit dakshina "right; south," and Welsh go-gledd "north," literally "left."

In reference to a favorite younger son, it is from the story of Jacob's family in Genesis. With familiar forms Benjy, Benny. Slang meaning "money" (by 1999) is from the portrait of Founding Father Benjamin Franklin on the U.S. $100 bill. In some old uses in herb-lore, etc., it is a folk-etymology corruption of benzoin.

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Tokyo 

so named 1868, from Japanese to "east" + kyo "capital;" its earlier name was Edo, literally "estuary."

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