Etymology
Advertisement
Kazakhstan 

from the indigenous Kazakh people (whose name is from Turkic kazak "nomad;" see Cossack) + Iranian -stan "country, land" (see -stan).

Related entries & more 
Advertisement
Cossack (n.)

"one of a military people who inhabit the steppes of southern Russia, 1590s, from Russian kozak, from Turkish kazak "adventurer, guerrilla, nomad," from qaz "to wander." The same Turkic root is the source of the people-name Kazakh and the nation of Kazakhstan.

Related entries & more 
Sens 

city in north-central France, Roman Senones, the capital of the Gaulish people of the same name.

Related entries & more 
Kabul 

capital of Afghanistan, named for its river, which carries a name of unknown origin.

Related entries & more 
Moscow 

Russian capital, named for the Moskva River, the name of which is of unknown origin. Moscow mule vodka cocktail is attested from 1950.

Related entries & more 
Advertisement
Saigon 

southern Vietnamese city, capital of former South Vietnam, named for its river, which bears a name of uncertain origin.

Related entries & more 
Tokyo 

so named 1868, from Japanese to "east" + kyo "capital;" its earlier name was Edo, literally "estuary."

Related entries & more 
Constantinople 

from 330 C.E. to 1930 the name of what is now Istanbul and formerly was Byzantium, the city on the European side of the Bosphorus that served as the former capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires, from Greek Konstantinou polis "Constantine's city," named for Roman emperor Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (see Constantine), who transferred the Roman capital there.

Related entries & more 
Ottawa 

Canadian capital, founded 1827 as Bytown, named for English officer John By, who oversaw construction of the canal there; renamed 1854, when it became capital, for the Ottawa River, which took its name from the Algonquian people who lived in Michigan and Ontario. Their name is said to be from adawe "to trade."

Related entries & more 
Lacedaemonian (adj.)

"pertaining to Sparta," 1709, from Latin Lacedaemonius, from Greek Lakedaimonios, from Lakedaimon, an ancient Greek name for Sparta as the capital of Lakonia (see laconic). From 1713 as a noun.

Related entries & more