Etymology
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sui juris 
1610s, "of full legal age and capacity," in ancient Rome, "of the status of one not subject to the patria potestas." For first element, see sui generis; for second element, see jurist.
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Beaufort scale 

to measure wind velocity, developed 1806 by Francis Beaufort, Irish-born surveyor and hydrologist.

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terza rima (n.)
1819, Italian, literally "third rhyme." Dante's measure: a-b-a-b-c-b-c-d-c-, etc.
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third degree (n.)
"intense interrogation by police," 1900, probably a reference to Third Degree of master mason in Freemasonry (1772), the conferring of which included an interrogation ceremony. Third degree as a measure of severity of burns (most severe) is attested from 1866, from French (1832); in American English, as a definition of the seriousness of a particular type of crime (the least serious type) it is recorded from 1865.
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civil disobedience (n.)

coined 1866 by Thoreau as the title of his essay originally published (1849) as "Resistance to Civil Government."

If the alternative is to keep all just men in prison, or give up war and slavery, the State will not hesitate which to choose. If a thousand men were not to pay their tax-bills this year, that would not be a violent and bloody measure, as it would be to pay them, and enable the State to commit violence and shed innocent blood. This is, in fact, the definition of a peaceable revolution, if any such is possible. [Thoreau]
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deep six (n.)

"place where something is discarded," by 1921 (in phrase give (something) the deep six), originally in motorboating slang, perhaps from earlier underworld noun sense of "the grave" (1929), which is perhaps a reference to the usual grave depth of six feet. But the phrase (in common with mark twain) also figured in sailing jargon, of sounding, for a measure of six fathoms:

As the water deepened under her keel the boyish voice rang out from the chains: "By the mark five—and a quarter less six—by the deep six—and a half seven—by the deep eight—and a quarter eight." ["Learning the Road to Sea," in Outing magazine, February 1918]

In general use by 1940s. As a verb from 1953.

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