Etymology
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calculation (n.)

late 14c., "art, manner, or practice of computing by numbers," also "the process of making a horoscope," from Late Latin calculationem (nominative calculatio) "a computation, calculation, reckoning," noun of action from past-participle stem of calculare "to reckon, compute," from Latin calculus "reckoning, account," originally "pebble used in counting," diminutive of calx (genitive calcis) "limestone" (see chalk (n.)). From early 15c. as "the result of reckoning, the solution for a problem."

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miscalculation (n.)

"erroneous calculation or estimate," 1720, from mis- (1) "bad, wrong" + calculation.

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logistic (adj.)
"pertaining to logic," 1620s, from Medieval Latin logisticus, from Greek logistikos "skilled in calculating; endued with reason," from logistes "a calculator," from logos "calculation, proportion" (see Logos). Related: Logistical (1560s); logistically. Logistics, from this word, in the sense "art of arithmetical calculation" is from 1650s.
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calculating (n.)
1710, "calculation," verbal noun from calculate (v.). Calculating-machine "mechanical computer, machine which performs mathematical calculations" is from 1830 [Babbage].
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compute (v.)

1630s, "determine by calculation," from French computer (16c.), from Latin computare "to count, sum up, reckon together," from com "with, together" (see com-) + putare "to reckon," originally "to prune," from PIE root *pau- (2) "to cut, strike, stamp." A doublet of count (v.). Related: Computed; computing.

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arbitrage (n.)
"arbitration, exercise of the function of an arbitrator," late 15c., from Old French arbitrage "arbitration, judgment," from arbitrer "to arbitrate, judge," from Late Latin arbitrari, from Latin arbiter "judge, umpire, mediator" (see arbiter). In finance, "the business founded on a calculation of the temporary differences in the price of securities in different markets" (1875).
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cusp (n.)

1580s, in astrology, "first entrance of a house in the calculation of a nativity," from Latin cuspis "point, spear, pointed end, head," which is of unknown origin. Astronomical sense is from 1670s, "point or horn of a crescent." Anatomical sense of "a prominence on the crown of a tooth" is from 1839.

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actuary (n.)
1550s, "registrar, clerk," from Medieval Latin actuarius "copyist, account-keeper, short-hand writer," from Latin actus in the specialized sense "public business" (literally "a doing;" from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move"). Meaning "person skilled in the calculation of chances and costs," especially as employed by an insurer, is from 1849.
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reckoner (n.)

c. 1200, rekenere, "one who keeps accounts or computes," agent noun from reckon (v.). Later especially "an aid in reckoning, something that assists a person to reckon accounts;" especially "book of tables used in calculation," often known as a ready reckoner (1757).

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mill (n.2)

"one-tenth of a cent," 1786, an original U.S. currency unit but now used only for tax calculation purposes, shortening of Latin millesimum "one-thousandth part," from mille "a thousand" (see million). Formed on the analogy of cent, which is short for Latin centesimus "one hundredth" (of a dollar). Compare mil.

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