Etymology
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carte de visite (n.)
"photograph portrait mounted on a 3.5-inch-by-2.5-inch card," 1861, French, literally "visiting card," from carte (see card (n.1)) + visite, from visiter (see visit (v.).
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cartel (n.)

1550s, "a written challenge, letter of defiance," from French cartel (16c.), from Italian cartello "placard," diminutive of carta "card" (see card (n.1)).

It came to mean "written agreement between states at war" (1690s), for the exchange of prisoners or some other mutual advantage, then "a written agreement between challengers" of any sort (1889). Sense of "a commercial trust, an association of industrialists" is from 1900, via German Kartell, which is from French. The older U.S. term for that is trust (n.). The usual German name for them was Interessengemeinschaft, abbreviated IG.

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carter (n.)
"cart-driver," early 13c. (late 12c. as a surname), from Anglo-French careter, and in part an agent noun from cart (v.). Figurative of a rude, uncultured man from c. 1500.
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Cartesian (adj.)
pertaining to the works or ideas of French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes (1596-1650), 1650s, from Cartesius, the Latinized form of his surname (regarded as Des Cartes) + -ian. In addition to his philosophy (based on the fundamental principle cogito, ergo sum), he developed a system of coordinates for determining the positions of points on a plane.
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Carthage 

ancient Semitic city of North Africa, rival of republican Rome, from Latin Carthago, from Phoenician quart khadash "new town." Related: Carthaginian.

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cart-horse (n.)
"horse that draws a cart," late 14c., from cart (n.) + horse (n.).
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Carthusian (adj.)
late 14c., from Latin Cartusianus, in reference to an austere order of monks founded 1086 by St. Bruno at Chartreux, village in Dauphiné, France.
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cartilage (n.)
"gristle; firm, elastic animal tissue," early 15c., from Old French cartilage and directly from Latin cartilaginem (nominative cartilago) "cartilage, gristle," which is possibly related to cratis "wickerwork" (see hurdle (n.)).
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cartilaginous (adj.)
"gristly, consisting of cartilage," 1540s, from French cartilagineux and directly from Latin cartilaginosus, from cartilago (genitive cartilaginis) "cartilage, gristle" (see cartilage).
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cartography (n.)
"the making of charts or maps," 1843, from French cartographie, from Medieval Latin carta (see card (n.1)) + French -graphie, from Greek -graphein "to write, to draw" (see -graphy). Related: Cartographer; cartographic.
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