Etymology
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caramel (n.)
1725, "burnt sugar," from French caramel "burnt sugar" (17c.), from Old Spanish caramel (modern caramelo), which is of uncertain origin, probably ultimately from Medieval Latin cannamellis, which is traditionally from Latin canna (see cane (n.)) + mellis, genitive of mel "honey" (from PIE root *melit- "honey"). But some give the Medieval Latin word an Arabic origin, or trace it to Latin calamus "reed, cane."

The word was being used by 1884 of a dark-colored creamy candy and by 1909 as a color-name.
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caramelize (v.)
"convert into caramel," 1837, from caramel + -ize. Earlier was past-participle adjective carameled (1727). Related: Caramelized; caramelizing.
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carapace (n.)
"upper shell of a turtle or tortoise; shell of an insect, crustacean, etc.," 1836, from French carapace "tortoise shell" (18c.), from Spanish carapacho or Portuguese carapaça, which is of uncertain origin, perhaps somehow from Latin capa (see cape (n.1)). Related: Carapacial.
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carat (n.)

also karat, late 15c., "a measure of the fineness of gold," from Old French carat "measure of the fineness of gold" (14c.), from Italian carato or Medieval Latin carratus, both from Arabic qirat "fruit of the carob tree," also "weight of 4 grains," from Greek keration "carob seed," also the name of a small weight of measure, literally "little horn" diminutive of keras "horn of an animal" (from PIE root *ker- (1) "horn; head").

Carob beans were a standard in the ancient world for weighing small quantities. The Greek measure was the equivalent of the Roman siliqua, which was one-twenty-fourth of a golden solidus of Constantine; hence karat took on a sense of "a proportion of one twenty-fourth, a twenty-fourth part," especially in expressing the fineness of gold when used as jewelry, and thus it became a measure of gold purity (1550s): 18-carat gold is eighteen parts gold, six parts alloy; 14-carat gold is 10/24ths alloy, etc.

As a measure of weight for diamonds or other precious stones, carat is attested from 1570s in English. In U.S., karat is used for "proportion of fine gold in an alloy" and carat for "measure of weight of a precious stone."

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caravan (n.)

1590s, in reference to in North Africa or western Asia, "company of travelers, pilgrims, merchants, etc., going together for security," from French caravane, from Old French carvane, carevane "caravan" (13c.), or Medieval Latin caravana, words picked up during the Crusades, via Arabic qairawan from Persian karwan "group of desert travelers" (which Klein connects to Sanskrit karabhah "camel").

Used in English for "any large number of persons traveling together with much baggage" (1660s), hence "a large covered carriage for conveying passengers" (1670s)  or later for traveling shows or used as a house by Gypsies. In modern British use (from 1930s), often a rough equivalent of the U.S. camper or recreational vehicle.

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caravanserai (n.)

1590s, carvanzara, "Eastern inn (with a large central court) catering to caravans," ultimately from Persian karwan-sarai, from karwan (see caravan) + sara'i "palace, mansion; inn," from Iranian base *thraya- "to protect" (from PIE root *tere- (2) "cross over, pass through, overcome").

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caravel (n.)

name given to several types of Mediterranean vessels; typically a small type of ship used by the Spanish and Portuguese in 15c. and 16c. for long voyages (Columbus's two smaller ships were caravels), 1520s, from French caravelle (15c.), from Spanish carabela or Portuguese caravela, diminutive of caravo "small vessel," from Late Latin carabus "small wicker boat covered with leather," from Greek karabos, literally "beetle, lobster" (see scarab). Earlier form carvel (early 15c.) survives in carvel-built (adj.).

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caraway (n.)
plant of southern Europe, the aromatic seeds of which are used in cooking and baking, late 13c., carewei, via Old French caroi from Old Italian or Medieval Latin carui, from Arabic al-karawiya, which is of unknown origin but suspected to be somehow from Greek karon "cumin." Also as Anglo-Latin carvi, Old French carvi. Old Spanish had alcarahuaya, alcaravea.
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carb (n.)
1942 as an abbreviation of carburetor; c. 2000 as short for carbohydrate.
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