"small case, natural or artificial," 1650s, from French capsule "a membranous sac" (16c.), from Latin capsula "small box or chest," diminutive of capsa "box, case, chest" (see case (n.2)). Medicinal sense is 1875; shortened form cap is from 1942. The sense in space capsule is recorded by 1954, perhaps from the earlier sense of "shell of a metallic cartridge" (1864). As an adjective from 1938. Related: Capsular.
late 14c., capitayn, "a leader, chief, one who stands at the head of others," from Old French capitaine "captain, leader," from Late Latin capitaneus "chief," noun use of adjective capitaneus "prominent, chief," from Latin caput (genitive capitis) "head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head").
The military sense of "officer who commands a company" (the rank between major and lieutenant) is from 1560s; the naval sense of "officer who commands a man-of-war" is from 1550s, extended to "master or commander of a vessel of any kind" by 1704. Sporting sense "leader of the players on a team" is recorded by 1823. The other Germanic words also are from French.
"act or practice of gaining favor by flattery," 1520s, from French captation, from Latin captationem (nominative captatio) "a reaching after, a catching at," noun of action from past-participle stem of captare (see catch (v.)).