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busy (adj.)
Old English bisig "careful, anxious," later "continually employed or occupied, in constant or energetic action" cognate with Old Dutch bezich, Low German besig, but having no known connection with any other Germanic or Indo-European language. Still pronounced as in Middle English, but for some unclear reason the spelling shifted to -u- in 15c.

The notion of "anxiousness" has drained from the word since Middle English. Often in a bad sense in early Modern English, "prying, meddlesome, active in that which does not concern one" (preserved in busybody). The word was a euphemism for "sexually active" in 17c. Of telephone lines, 1884. Of display work, "excessively detailed, visually cluttered," 1903.
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busy (v.)
late Old English bisgian, "attend to, be concerned with, be diligent," from the source of busy (adj.). From late 14c. as "keep engaged, make or keep busy." Related: Busied; busying.
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busy-work (n.)

also busy work, "work done simply to keep one occupied," 1884, American English, originally in primary education, from busy (adj.) + work (n.).

How to keep little children busy while not reciting, is the despair of many a teacher. Miss Goodyear solves the problem by introducing a modification of the kindergarten occupations, which she denominates "busy work." Tablets, rings, slats, weaving, and the like, drawing, writing, all are laid under contribution. In this way the interest of the little folk is aroused and directed. ["Annual Report of the State Superintendent of Education, of the State of South Carolina," 1886]
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busybody (n.)
"meddlesome person," 1520s, from busy (adj.) in the otherwise-obsolete sense "prying, meddlesome" + body "person."
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busily (adv.)
c. 1200, bisiliche, "carefully, with attention to detail;" see busy (adj.) + -ly (2). From mid-14c. as "in a busy manner, diligently."
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busyness (n.)
"state of being actively employed," 1849, first attested in Thoreau, from busy (adj.) + -ness. A modern formation made necessary after business evolved away from busy. Middle English had busyship, busyhede.
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business (n.)

Old English bisignes (Northumbrian) "care, anxiety, occupation," from bisig "careful, anxious, busy, occupied, diligent" (see busy (adj.)) + -ness. The original sense is obsolete, as is the Middle English sense of "state of being much occupied or engaged" (mid-14c.), the latter replaced by busyness. Johnson's dictionary also has busiless "At leisure; without business; unemployed." Modern two-syllable pronunciation is 17c.

Sense of "a person's work, occupation, that which one does for a livelihood" is first recorded late 14c. (in late Old English bisig (adj.) appears as a noun with the sense "occupation, state of employment"). Sense of "that which is undertaken as a duty" is from late 14c. Meaning "what one is about at the moment" is from 1590s. Sense of "trade, commercial engagements, mercantile pursuits collectively" is first attested 1727, on the notion of "matters which occupy one's time and attention." In 17c. business also could mean "sexual intercourse."

Business card first attested 1840; business letter from 1766. Business end "the practical or effective part" (of something) is American English, by 1874. Phrase business as usual attested from 1865. To mean business "be intent on serious action" is from 1856. To mind (one's) own business "attend to one's affairs and not meddle with those of others" is from 1620s.

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pragmatical (adj.)

1540s, "pertaining to material interests of a state or community;" 1590s, "concerned with practical results," from Latin pragmaticus (see pragmatic) + -al (1). Often in a bad sense 17c.-18c.: "unduly busy over the affairs of others, characterized by officiousness, intrusive" (1610s); "busy over trifles, self-important" (1704). Related: Pragmatically; pragmaticalness.

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putter (v.)
"keep busy in a rather useless way," 1841, originally among farmers, alteration of potter (v.). Related: Puttered; puttering.
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tinker (v.)
1590s, "to work as a tinker," from tinker (n.). Meaning "work imperfectly, keep busy in a useless way," is first found 1650s. Related: Tinkered; tinkering.
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